[PnP] Logistics, mine for useful nuggets

Choinski, Burton Burton.Choinski at matrixone.com
Sun Jun 27 18:21:13 CEST 2004

I fond the following two pages in my general rooting about the net for
game-usable junk, a long while ago.  They seem to be snippits from
historical and modern records. The purpose of all the gathered data seems to
have been used to model ancient trade routes and economics.

A little data mining and extrapolation may pull out reasonable realistic
data for any future game work.


Pages are noted as being offline at present for reoganization, which may
provide even more data later on, but my saved copies presented here in their
gory details. :}

Logistics data
Supply: [food, fodder, water, fuel, spare parts, noncomestibles]

    * People on foot
          o "A minimum ration for each adult on a military expedition would
be 3lb [1.35 kg - tmc] of grain per day or its nutritional equivalent and at
least 2 qt. [0.5 gallon or 2.27 l - tmc] of water per day." (Engels
          o "Walking [in desert conditions] during the day you may get 16 km
(10 miles) to one gallon [4.54 l - tmc] of water. At night, you could
possibly double that distance, somce you will dehydrate less." (Lewis
          o "In summer in the Sahara, you will need to drink up to 6
litres/10 pints of fluids daily." (Lewis 1997:131)
          o "The caloric consumption at normal [walking - tmc] speed is less
than 100 calories per mile [1609 m - tmc], or the equivalent of a 35-mile
[56.3 km - tmc] walk for the weight loss of one pound." (Fruin 1971:27-28)
          o "Human energy consumption for climbing stairs [within the range
27-40 degrees - tmc] is about ten to fifteen times the energy needed for
walking the equivalent horizontal distance." (Fruin 1971:30)
          o "Human energy consumption for [descending] stairs [within the
range 27-40 degrees] is about [one third greater then] the energy needed for
walking the equivalent horizontal distance." (Fruin 1971:30)
          o "The normal water ration for troops in a desert is 10 liters per
day (about 9 qt.)." (Engels 1978:125)
          o "In the Sahara humidity is a constant 40 percent, but here [in
the Libyan desert] it drops to 18 percent. And life evaporates like a haze.
Beduin tribesmen, travellers and colonial officials all teach that a man can
last for nineteen hours without water. After twenty hours his eyes flood
with light, and it is the beginning of the end: thirst's onslaught is
devastating." (Saint-Exupery 1995:85)
          o A few rules of thumb: (a) if fodder for pack animals and water
are available, but no grain - a group of travelling people (such as an army)
can carry a 10-day grain ration; (b) if water is available, but no fodder or
grain - a group can carry a 7-day grain ration; (b) if no water, fodder or
grain is available - a group can carry a 4-day grain ration. (Engels 1978:
20-21) Moral: "An army whose supplies are carried by animals and men cannot
advance through desert where neither grain, fodder or water is available for
more than four days. If the army were fed full rations, it could not advance
for more than two full days without incurring heavy casualties." (Engels
1978: 22)
          o It is impossible to carry supplies (food) overland for more than
nine (9) days because pack animals and the personnel would have consumed all
the supplies they could carry by this time (Engels 1978: 112).
          o Starting on a journey across Taklamakan desert in Sep 1993
Blackmore calculated on 5 liters of water/person/day (2L for drinking, 2L
for communal cooking and sweet tea, 1L spare in backpacks) + 40L
water/camel/3 days for the 30 camels and 15 person strong party 3.5 week
crossing from Markit to Mazartagh. This gave a total of 1,800 liters,
without wastage and small "margin for safety with temperatures rising into
the hundreds [Farenheit]" (Blackmore 1995:51) [3.5 weeks = 24 days. People
requirements = 24days*15people*5liters = 1800L. Camels
(8days*30camels*40liters =9600L) were to be watered from wells dug enroute -
          o A 1st c. CE memorial from certain Yen Yew states: "If we reckon
the consumption per man for three hundred days at eighteen bushels [approx
360 litres - J.Hill] of dried rice, such a weight will require oxen for the
transport." This suggest a consumption rate of 1.2L of rice per person/day
[360L/300 days. Compare these figures with 1.35 kg of wheat per person/day
as calculated by Engels - tmc].
            The quote and data are taken from a translation
(http://faculty.washington.edu/dwaugh/CA/texts/hantxt1.html#memorial) of an
unidentified chapter of the 'Han shu' by A. Wylie in the Journal of the
Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Vols. III (1874),
pp. 401-452, V (1876), pp. 41-80, X (1881), pp. 20-73, and XI (1882), pp.
            John Hill (wynhill at tpg.com.au) writes Sun, 28 Jan 2001 "Memorial
from Yen Yew quoted (which advises against making a campaign against the
Hsiung nu) probably dates to the events of 11 AD and come from Chap. 94 of
the Han shu, but I am not sure. [...] We know that the Han "bushel" ('shih'
or 'hu') = 19.968 litres (see Records of the han Administration by Michael
Loewe, Vol. 1. Cambridge 1967, p. 161)."
    * People on animals
    * Animals
          o "To be fed adequately, horses and mules ... need in addition of
their usual forage (10 lb of straw or chaff), a ration of 10 lb. of grain
per day and... 8 [imperial] gal. [36.3L - tmc] of water per day " (Engels
          o "Hot weather and hard work will almost double ordinary water
requirements [for cavalry horses, to a level of 15 gal. [68.1L - tmc] of
water per day]." (Engels 1978:127).
          o The ratio between the [horse's] consumption rate and his
carrying capacity in pounds remains approximately the same (about 1:10), no
matter what the size of the animal." (Engels 1978:128). [this means that
within 10 days the animal will consume all grain it is able to carry,
providing it has an external supply of fodder and water - tmc]
          o unspecified camel needs (a) 10 lb of grain and 25 lb of straw
per day; or (b) 8 lb of grain, 30 lb of straw; or (c) 6 lb of grain, 40-50
lb of straw; or (d) 4 lb grain, 50-60 lb of straw; or (e) "if no grain can
be given; 70 lb of straw will be needed." (Engels 1978:129)
          o unspecified camel needs "about 10 gal. [45.4 - tmc] of water per
day - although if the animal has gone three or four days without water, he
might require 20 gal.[90.8 l - tmc] at one time." (Engels 1978:18)
          o dromedary camel "can go 5-7 days with little or no food and
water, and can lose a quarter of its body weight without impairing its
normal functions. These days, camels rely on man for their preferred food of
dates, grass and grains such as wheat and oats, but a working camel
travelling across an area where food is scarce can easily survive on thorny
scrub or whatever it can find - bones, seeds, dried leaves, or even its
owner's tent! [...] Camels need very little water if their regular diet
contains good, moisture-rich pasture. Although camels can withstand severe
dehydration, a large animal can drink as much as 100 litres/21 gallons in
ten minutes. Such an amount would kill another mammal, but the camel's
unique metabolism enables the animal to store the water in its bloodstream."
(ArabNet 1996)
          o bactrian camel "can tolerate extremely hot weather. They can
suffer thirst, going without watering for 7-8 days, even under the sun, and
may lose as much as 221 lbs of water which is about 22-25% of their body
weight." (Cheng 1984)
          o An elephant needs 500 lb [225 kg - tmc] of grain and 60 gal.
[272.4 l - tmc] of water per day (Engels 1978:111)
          o "Yaks can graze on the alpine grasslands in the summer and
during winter on the shrubs in deep snow in rigorous temperatures." (Cheng
    * beasts of burden
    * carts & draft animals
          o A 1st c. CE memorial from certain Yen Yew states: "If we reckon
the consumption per man for three hundred days at eighteen bushels of dried
rice, such a weight will require oxen for the transport; and then the food
for the oxen must also be provided, which will be an additional weight of
twenty bushels [approx 400 litres - J.Hill]. The Hoo land is for the most
part sandy and salt, with scarcity of water and herbage, as we know from
past experience; and before the army has been out a hundred days the oxen
will all die out, while the quantity of provisions still left will be more
than the men can carry." This suggest a consumption rate of (a) 1.33L
[400L/300 days - tmc] of rice per oxen/day, in addition to herbage; (b) 4L
[400L/100 days - tmc] of rice per oxen/day when fodder is unavailable.
            The quote and data are taken from a translation
(http://faculty.washington.edu/dwaugh/CA/texts/hantxt1.html#memorial) of an
unidentified chapter of the 'Han shu' by A. Wylie in the Journal of the
Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Vols. III (1874),
pp. 401-452, V (1876), pp. 41-80, X (1881), pp. 20-73, and XI (1882), pp.
            John Hill (wynhill at tpg.com.au) writes Sun, 28 Jan 2001 "Memorial
from Yen Yew quoted (which advises against making a campaign against the
Hsiung nu) probably dates to the events of 11 AD and come from Chap. 94 of
the Han shu, but I am not sure. [...] We know that the Han "bushel" ('shih'
or 'hu') = 19.968 litres (see Records of the han Administration by Michael
Loewe, Vol. 1. Cambridge 1967, p. 161)." 
    * boats and ships
    * ratio of people to animals
          o "In the Roman imperial army, one pack animal carried the tent,
hand mills, kettles, and tool kits for each eight-man contubernium.
Additional animals transported the catapult carried by each legion and the
effects of the military tribunes, legate, and centurions... [which gave the
figure] of about one animal per seven combatants." (Engels 1978:17)
          o "A caravan might consisted of five to six thousands camels..."
(Braudel 1995:63).
          o "In 1602 a Portuguese Jesuit, Benedict de Goes [...] set off
from Lahore [in Pakistan] for China 9where he died), attaching himself to a
caravan of five hundred merchants, and passed through a part of eastern
Afghanistan which he calls 'Capherstam' [Nuristan, NE Afghanistan." (Newby
          o In 1935 the Deutsche Hindu Kush Expedition "was certainly big.
Its members travelled with forty mules specially imported for the job,
fifteen mule drivers, three Afghan officers and sixteen soldiers. It worked
methodically, establishing supply depots for itself en route." (Newby
          o An explorers' group in Afghanistan in summer 1956 consisted of 2
explorers on feet and 3 local (Tajik) pack-horse drivers (Newby 1974:104).
[ratio 3 horses: 5 walkers or 0.6 horse: 1 person - tmc]
          o "Caravans were made up of people and pack animals traveling in
large groups; up to 20,000 people and 300,000 animals has been recorded in a
general caravan made up of merchants and pilgrims traveling to Mecca."
(Anonymous 1997) [an example of improbable data: assuming that in a desert
conditions only 200 animals could be watered simultaneously and that each
beast took only 1 minute to arrive to the source of water, drink it and
depart (a most impressive feat of speed, and traffic coordination), the
whole process would last 1500 minutes or 25 hrs - tmc]
          o In 1895 Sven Hedin, 3 camel-handlers and eight Bactrian camels
embarked on journey across Taklamakan desert. (Blackmore 1995:48,92). [ratio
2 camels:1 person - tmc]
          o In 1993 nine explorers, six camel-handlers and 30 male Bactrian
camels embarked on a multi-stage (resupplies of water, food and fodder) 780
miles long journey across Taklamakan desert. (Blackmore 1995:57). [ratio 2
camels:1 person - tmc]
          o In 1900 5 people (2 explorers + 3 servants) travelled with 16
ponies from Bandipur at IN to Kashgar at CN (Walker 1995:70) [ratio 3.2 ponies:1
person - tmc] 

Loading capacity data
[average, max, extreme situations, seasonal variations, effect of numbers,
need for daily and intermittent rest]

    * people
          o A soldier can carry about 80 lb [36 kg - tmc] for extended
distances without injuring his health (Engels 1978:17,21)
          o Afghan butter carriers in Nuristan [NE Afghanistan] in 1956
carried loads (in a hand-made backpack) about 64 pounds [28.8 kg - tmc] for
8.5 days across a rugged mountainous terrain from Pushal, via Semenek Pass
to Chitral, a distance of some 150 miles [approx 240 km, average speed 28.4
km/day - tmc] (Newby 1974:200,217)
          o Porter (in Africa) can carry a 60lb [27 kg -tmc] load 10-15
miles a day [16-24 km - tmc] (Harms 1981:48-49, cited in Oliver 2000:158) 
    * beasts of burden
          o "The average pack animal [horse/mule/camel] - in the Macedonian
baggage train could carry 250 lb [112.5 kg]." (Engels 1978:15)
          o dromedary camel "can carry as much as 450kg/990lbs, but a usual
and more comfortable cargo weight is 150kgs/330lbs. It is usual for a camel
to work as a beast of burden for only six to eight months of the year; the
remainder of the time it needs to rest and recuperate." (ArabNet 1996)
          o Arvana [Turkmenistan] camel "In an 8-10 hour working day Arvana
camels can carry packs weighing 200-300 kg for a distance of 30-35 km."
(Dmitriez and Ernst 1989)
          o bactrian camel "A load of 330 lbs [148.5 kg] can be carried for
7-8 hours a day at the ordinary speed of 25-35 km per day." (Cheng 1984)
          o Unspecified camel - "can carry 300 lb [135 kg] for extended
distances ... these figures are net weights and exclude the weight of the
pack saddle itself, which weighted about 50 lb. [22.5 kg]" (Engels
          o Unspecified camel - can carry six hundredweight or 300 kg
(Braudel 1995:63) [A possible example of misinformation. A camel can lift
that weight - the question is how far and for how long can it carry it -
          o Unspecified camel - along the Silk Road luxury "items went
overland by way of caravan which consisted of anywhere to 100 to 1000
camels, each loaded with roughly 500 pounds of goods." (Gonzalez nd).
          o Camels - loading capacity: An example of a traveller in Sudan in
the late 1920s. 1 European rider on a racing camel + 6 camels in his
personal train [c1 105kg (& 70kg cook) + c2 55kg of cook boxes (& 70kg
servant) + c3 100kg + c4 80kg + c5 140 kg (2x 50l water) + c6 220kg (grain
for other camels)] + a man (on a camel?) to look after the train. To tie 6
pack camels with the above luggage one needs 65 m of good rope, excluding
that for tying and leading the camels (Wilson, R.T. 1984:151) [total load
(exl. people = 700kg (or 117kg/camel), initially, but with the gradual
reduction in weight of grain and water. The heaviest-loaded beasts walk last
in the train - tmc]
          o Bishari camel (Sudan) as a riding animal - loading capacity: In
the 1930s, British Camel Corps in Sudan. Speed 7-8 km hr, carried a soldier,
water for the soldier for 4 days, food for the soldier for 3 weeks; cooking
gear, blankets, overcoat; 200 rounds of ammunition and 6-day's grain for the
camel- a total load of approx 180 kg. "With this load they were expected to
travel up to 650 kms to the general area of operations and then average
anything up to 65 km per night for five nights in seek and destroy
missions." (Wilson, R.T. 1984:163)
          o camels as pack animals - loading capacity: Speed 2-3 kms.hr. The
max load depends on time and place. Sudan in the 1920 - approx 165kg; Sudan,
Bishari Camel Corps camels - approx 180 kg; Sudan exploration groups - -
apprxo 220kg and carrying the weight for 1000 km or more; British Army in
India - 200kg; Indian Army in India - 180 kg; French Army in Algeria -
120-150 kg. (Wilson, R.T. 1984:163-165). (Wilson, R.T. 1984:163)
          o In Sudan in the 1970s "most of the camels still used for
transport [...] regularly carry in excess of 300kg and carrying this load
are to achieve distances 20-25 km per day over extended periods... [and they
have seen to accomplish] the 160km journey in 5 or 6 days." (Wilson, R.T.
          o In Ethiopia camels move salt from Danakil Depression to the
Tigre Higlands the loads are low "90 kg on average, but the animals cover
the 160 km journey in 4 days and gain an altitude of about 2800 m in the
process." (Wilson, R.T. 1984:166)
          o "In Mali camels carrying salt from the northern desert to
Timbuctoo are loaded with 4-6 blocks of 35kg each." (Wilson, R.T. 1984:166)
[load 140-210 kg - tmc]
          o The average load of a camel is 250kg, and that of a donkey 50kg
- (Wilson, R.T. 1984:166-167)
          o Horse/mule - "can carry 200 lb [90 kg] for extended distances
... these figures are net weights and exclude the weight of the pack saddle
itself, which weighted about 50 lb. [22.5 kg]" (Engels 1978:14-15)
          o Yak "may travel 20-30 km per day with a load of 130 lbs. [58.5
kg] on the high, cold, steep mountainous paths." (Cheng 1984)
          o Llamas "as beast of burden ... they could carry a hundredweight
[112 lb or 50.8 kg] and travel 15 miles [24.1 km] a day." (Thomas 1995:238).

    * carts & draft animals
          o On Roman roads "There were major and minor post stations every
ten or twelve miles [16.1-19.3 km] along the main roads. Each station kept
horses, vets, ostlers, surgeons, cartwrights, carriages and wagons. The
upkeep was maintained by provincial taxes." (Thomas 1995:235)
          o "By the twelfth century, a four wheeled 'caretta', capable of
carying heavy loads, very slowly, was in being." (Thomas 1995:237)
          o "One [bactrian] camel can pull a load of 1650 lbs [742 kg - tmc]
or 3300 lbs [1485 kg - tmc] by two, per day at normal walking speed [3.1-4.4
km/hr (8 hrs day), 3.6-5 km/hr (7 hrs day) - tmc]." (Cheng 1984)
          o "Ox carts... can only achieve a speed of 2 mph and their [oxen -
tmc] hooves are unsuitable for travelling long distances." (Engels 1978:15)
          o "The average 2-oxen cart can pull 1,000 to 1200 lb. [450-540 kg
- tmc] (at 2 mph.)" (Engels 1978:15)
          o In 1683, during King Sobieski's war against Turkey "Eight
thousand wagons with food for six months [for 26,000 men - tmc] rumbled on
[through Bohemia] at fifteen miles a day." (Davies 1982:481) [average speed
= 24.2 km/day. Rations: 180*26,000 = 4,680,000 daily rations. This means
that each wagon carried 585 daily rations - tmc]
          o Quatermasters in Napoleonic army "took fifty wagons to move
forage for some 2,500 horses for two days." [= 1 wagon of forage per 100
horses/day - tmc] (Elting 1997: 554) 
    * boats & ships
          o Metric conversion: short tons to metric tons:

1 metric ton = 2204.6 pounds
1 metric ton = 1000 kilograms
1 metric ton = 1.1023 short tons
1 metric ton = 0.98421 long tons
1 short ton = 2000 pounds
1 short ton = 907.2 kilograms
1 short ton = 0.9072 metric tons
1 short ton = 0.8929 long tons
1 long ton = 2240 pounds
1 long ton = 1016 kilograms
1 long ton = 1.016 metric tons
1 long ton = 1.12 short tons

Conversion Factors 
Multiply     By 		To Obtain
Tons, short	0.9072		Metric tons
Tons, long	1.01605		Metric tons
Gallons		3.78543		Liters
Bushels		0.0352		Cubic meters
Cubic Yards	0.765		Cubic meters 

            Src: Navigation Data Center, The US Army Corps of Engineers.
2000. Metric Conversion. http://www.wrsc.usace.army.mil/ndc/metric.htm.
          o "'Ton' as used in the Tariff has reference to a short ton of
2,000 lbs. All cargo will be subject to weight or measurement, whichever
results in higher charges, with a measure ton consisting of 40 cubic feet."
Src: Port Manatee. ?1999. Terminal Tariff No. 3: Rates, Rules And
Regulations Governing Port Manatee. http://www.portmanatee.com/TariffC.html

            Therefore, in the notes below
            I assume the following correspondence of volumes: 1 ton burden
(a term used by Lionel Casson) = 1 freight ton = 1 shipping ton = 1 measure
ton = 40 cubic feet

            and I assume the following volume / weight correspondence: 1 ton
burden (measure of volume) = 1 short ton (measure of weight) = 2000 pounds =
0.9072 metric ton
          o A man paddling in a dug-out canoe (in Africa) can transport an
approximately 180 lb [81kg -tmc] load 40-50 miles a day [64-80 km - tmc]
while travelling downstream, and 25-35 miles a day [40-56 km - tmc] when
travelling against the river's current (Harms 1981:48-49, cited in Oliver
          o Greece, Classical - "Vessels of 100 to 150 tons burden [90-135
metric tons - tmc] were common, and the biggest could hold as much as 400."
(Casson 1984:25)
          o "The largest merchant ships of the fifth century B.C. could
transport 10,000 talents [approx. 262 metric tons - tmc]." (Engels 1978:26)
          o At the times of Alexander the Great "The average merchant ship
could carry 140 tons [126 metric tons - tmc]." (Engels 1978:112)
          o Rome, 1st c. CE - "Ships, up to 1000 tons [tons burden - tmc],
might carry some 600 persons, but ordinary freighters were probably only
about 200 tons or less." (Scullard 1970:343)
          o Venice, 1500 CE. - The city needed only 30-40 ships for her
inter-regional trade. "The average size was about 250 tons burden [225
metric tons - tmc], the largest was not over 440 [396 metric tons - tmc]."
(Lane 1934:107 cited in Casson 1984:93)
          o Meditteranean, 13th c. there were "Venetian galleys, as well as
round ships carrying 100 to 250 tons [90-225 metric tons - tmc] of cargo."
(Curtin 1984:120)
          o Persian Gulf, 13th c. "The dhows that sailed the Indian Ocean
carried 100-400 tons [90-360 metric tons - tmc] of cargo. A large one could
carry up to seventy war horses and a hundred fighting men along with other
crew and passengers." (Curtin 1984:120)
          o Europe, 16th c. - "The average for western craft in the 16th
century was probably no more than 75 [tons burden] [67.5 metric tons -
tmc]." (Casson 1984:25)
          o Europe, mid-17th c. - In Gdansk, in 1641, 964 [55%] of 1,741
ships which visited the city had a capacity of less then 50 lasts (about 115
metric tons); 674 [39%] had a capacity 50-150 lasts (115-345 metric tons);
103 [6%] of them carried over 150 lasts (345 metric tons and more) (Davies
          o In the 1660s the Siamese ships trading between Bangkok and
Canton had around 300 metric tons capacity (Curtin 1984:170)
          o In the mid-18th c., on a river route from Tsaritsyn (mod.
Volgograd, former Stalingrad) to Astrakhan "goods were put on river boats
capable of hauling about 45 tons [40 metric tons - tmc] with a crew of
fifteen to twenty." (Curtin 1984:191)
          o Europe, late-18th c. - In Poland, in 1796, the following
river-craft was in use (Davies 1982:265).

Name			Crew   Max Grain Cargo  
in metric tons*
Szkuta (Raft)		20     	  96.4
Dubas (Barge)		14     	  67.7
Byk (Flatboat)		12        50.7
Lyzwa (Pontoon)		10        50.7
Koza (small Raft)	10        42.3
Galar (Lighter)		 8        33.8
Berlinka (skiff)	 6        25.4
* calculated from Polish bushels (1 korzec = 114 litres of rye or, roughly
84.6 kg)
Src:  (Davies 1982:265).


1. Nodes data

    * terminus: point of departure/point of destination (arrival) place
[cities, ports]
    * hub/interchange place [cities, crossroads, ports]
    * staging/resupply place
    * stopping place [campsites, sarais]
    * problem places [fords, passes, portage]
    * tax collection places
          o Rome, 1st c. CE - Indirect taxes (portoria) imposed as a way of
collecting revenue. The three Gauls formed a customs district that paid
2.5%, 'Illyricum' (i.e. all the Balkan provinces) paid 5 percent, Spain paid
2 percent), luxuries from the East were subject to a 25% tax at Leuke Kome.
Individual cities (like Palmyra during the times of Hadrian) had elaborate
tariffs for caravans. (Scullard 1970:342)
          o Rome, 1st c. CE - Transit tolls at bridges and ferries were also
collected (Scullard 1970:342)
          o "The Panjhir road [the main caravan route from Kabul via Anjuman
Pass to Feyzabad, Afghanistan and the crossing of the Oxus][...] is the
thoroughfare of Kafir highwaymen who also, being so near, take tax of it."
(Newby 1974:94, quoting a 1526 memoir by the Emperor Babur." 

2. Communication links data

    * movement corridors - a general area of terrain (on land or water) used
for efficient movement from one node to another
          o "In some parts of Sahara the 'main' road is as much as 15
kilometers wide." (Lewis 1997:133) 
    * movement tracks - a well defined narrow ribbon of space used for
          o "Choose the easiest route. Go round obstacles, not over or
through them. Zigzag to prevent over-exertion when climbing. Visibility for
a man six feet tall is limited to between five and six miles [8-9.6 km -
tmc] when standing on a flat plain." (Lewis 1997:143) 

3. Technology & resources data
# advantages offered by terrain

    * Commercial water routes were in operation as far back as the end of
the 3rd millennium BCE (Grohmann 1933:101-4). 

# advantages offered by technological innovations

    * ca. 4000 BCE horses are domesticated and used for riding at Ukrainian
steppes (Brown and Anthony 1997).

    * ca. 3000 BCE vehicles with disk wheels are invented, in Mesopotamia.
Ox and onager are used as draft animals (International Museum of the Horse,
nd). Information and objects can be carried over long distances.
    * ca. 1500 BCE vehicles with spoked wheels are used, in Egypt.
(International Museum of the Horse, nd). [Chariots become lighter, stronger
and faster - tmc].
    * The domestication of the camel and its use in long-distance overland
traveling and hauling can probably be dated to the 13th or 12th c. BCE
(Albright 1940:107, 120; Walz 1954:47-50). 

# facilities

    * caravan serais and khans (Braudel 1995:63)
    * bridges
          o In 1096 near Antioch the so called "Iron Bridge [stood] where
the roads from Marash and Aleppo united to cross the river [Orontes]. The
bridge was heavily fortified, with two towers flanking its entrance."
(Runciman 1978a:215)
          o At a village valled Leuce [on a road from Nicomedia to
Dorylaeum, in Asia Minor, in 1096] there was a "bridge across the Blue
River, where the road leaves the Sangarius valley to climb up into the
plateau." (Runciman 1978a:184)
          o In 1956 "At Tirpul the road crosses the river [Hari-Rud,
Afghanistan, about sixty miles west of Herat] by a battered handsome bridge,
six arches wide, built of brick." (Newby 1974:49).
          o Chinese Buddhist monk "Sung Yün [...] crossed the Pamirs to the
Oxus in A.D. 519 and entered India by way of Kafiristan [Nuristan, NE
Afghanistan] to avoid an even more dreadful crossing of the upper Indus by a
bridge constructed from a single iron chain." (Newby 1974:88).
          o In 1956 in Panjshir river valley, Afghanistan "The bridge over
the Khawak [a tributary stream gushing down from the Khawak Pass] consisted
of two parallel tree-trunks, one higher than the other, with the gap between
filled with rocks and turf." (Newby 1974:129). This bridge was used only by
travellers on foot, while the pack-horses forded the stream "with their
drivers perched on top of the loads." (Newby 1974:129) 
    * causeways
    * roads (cleared, paved, marked, patrolled)
            "[Chinese] 'Imperial Highway' that crossed into Guangdong at the
Meiling Pass. I was lucky and south of Dayu found that part of the old
"Imperial Highway" has been preserved. From the entrance
(memorial-archway-style) gate with the words "Gu3yi4dao4" to the pass where
there is a (city-wall-style) gate it is probably one and one-half mile. The
pathway is of cobblestone and varies in width from ten to fifteen feet
[3-4.5 m -tmc] and continues into Guangdong." (Alan Sweeten
(AlanS47 at aol.com), email Fri, 17 Sep 1999, h-asia at h-net.msu.edu) 
    * ferries
          o Samyé Dukou [a ferry crosssing point, near Samyé monastery,
S.Tibet] "When yak-skin coracles were still in use, holding ten people, the
Tsangpo crossing took two hours or more, depending on the current. Now
[1993] the river is plied by motorised, flat-bottomed boats taking twenty
people seated and unmentionable number standing up. It takes forty-five to
ninety minutes to get across, depending on sandbanks." (Houbein 1999:41)
          o In 1935 the Margaret & Derrick Williamson during an official
diplomatic misssion to Lhasa went for a cruise down the Tsangpo. "In every
coracle travelled one sheep, because on the upstream journey the boastman
would carry his coracle on his back, while the sheep carried his
belongings." (Houbein 1999:42, citing Williamson 1987) 
    * fords
    * passes
    * steps
    * wells, dams, water throughs [for animals]
          o "The road over the Mablaqah pass [in Yemen] from ther kingdom of
Qataban was paved for five kilometers, with a small reservoir for camels and
travellers at each end." (Scarre 1988:184) 
    * markers
          o Godfrey of Lorraine's army of the 1st Crusaders in May 1096
moved from Civetot to Nicea [both near the Sea of Marmara] "cautiously,
sending scouts and engineers in front, to clear and widen the track; which
was then marked by a series of wooden crosses, to serve as a guide for
future pilgrims." (Runciman 1978a:177) 

# obstacles

    * rivers
    * mountains
    * wetlands
    * deserts and other unpopulated areas
    * defiles
    * roadblocks and fortifications
    * mud and snow on deteriorated roads
          o "The actual speed of the march would depend on the condition of
the roads; deep mud or steep slopes would restrict the best marchers to a
crawl." (Elting 1997:463) 

4. Users data

    * movement of people: armies, pilgrims, travellers
    * movement of goods: trade, non-traded items
    * movement of information: messengers, post 

5. Logistics data


6. Speeds & endurance data
[average, max, extreme situations, seasonal variations, effect of numbers
travelling, effect of obstacles ]

    * people on foot
          o Pilgrims walking from Jaffa to Jerusalem in 1102 would cover the
distance of some 62 kms in two days [= speed 31km/day tmc] (Saewulf
          o "By walking slowly and resting for 10 minutes every hour, a man
in good physicial condition can cover between 20 and 30 kms (12 and 18
miles) per day if he has sufficient food and water." (Lewis 1997:142)
          o "Speeds of descent [on stairs] are about one-third greater than
needed for climbing." (Fruin 1971:30)
          o "Marching soldiers in precise military formation, each occupying
about 6 square feet, van attain flows of 48 pedestrians per foot per minute
for the width of the formation." (Fruin 1971:45)
          o "Near-normal walking speed ... was found to require average area
of 25 square feet per person or more." (Fruin 1971:47)
          o "There is no measurable effect on walking speeds due to grades
up to 5 percent." (Fruin 1971:41)
          o Terrain grade 5-10 percent results in a decrease in walking
speed by 11.5 percent; grade 10-20 percent results in a decrease in walking
speed by 25 percent (Fruin 1971:41)
          o Dorylaeum is "22 hours' marching distance from Leuce ... some 85
miles [= 6.2 km/hr, an impossibly high speed - tmc]." (Runciman
          o Crusaders in Hungary in May 1096, "The vast majority travelled
on foot. Where roads were good they managed to cover twenty-five miles a day
[40.2 km/day, an impossibly high speed - tmc]." (Runciman 1978a:124)
          o Crusaders in mountainous Epir in Jan/Feb 1096 took "some seven
weeks to cover a distance of little more than a hundred miles] [approx 3.2
km/day - tmc]." (Runciman 1978a:156)
          o In Jul-Sep 1683 during King Jan Sobieski's war against Turkey
26,000 troops (mainly cavalry units) marched in 53 days from Warsaw to
Vienna (Davies 1982:481) [The two cities are 560 kms apart. Assuming an
additional 25% of that distance for travel in the actual terrain, Sobieski's
army covered some 700 kms in 53 days (20 Jul - 11 Sep) at an average speed
of 13.2 km/day - tmc]
          o In Spring/Summer 1704 Marlborough marched - walking in the night
(3am-9am) and using pre-selected camp sites, rest days, regular 'stages' of
march, the purchase of local supplies and transport - "his steadily growing
army 20,000 - 40,000) [...] some 250 miles in 5 weeks." (Chandler 1996:44).
[402 km in 35 days, or 11.5 km/day. Assuming 1 day of rest in every seven,
and 6 hrs of march every night, the average marching speeds were 402/28*6 =
2.4 km/hr - tmc]
          o In Summer 1704 Tallard marched his army (some 40,000) 200 miles
in 36 days. (Chandler 1996:44). [322 km in 36 days, or 8.9 km/day - tmc]
          o In Napoleon's army "keeping a regiment healthy and at a full
strength during a march took skill, experience, and plain hard work. The
leading company must move out at the pas ordinaire (normal rate of march) of
seventy-six steps to a minute [= 76*75cm*60 mins = 3.4km/hr - tmc], hold it
steadily, and avoid 'stepping long'. [...] the pas ordinaire was the
standard marching speed, though some light infantry regiments habitually
marched at eighty-five steps to a minute [=85*60cm*60 = 3.8 km/hr - tmc]. On
good roads or hard open ground, if more speed were needed, the marching gait
might be increased to the pas accelere (quick time) of one hundred steps
[=100*60cm*60 = 4.5 km/hr - tmc]; for emergencies the troops might be
hustled along the pas de charge (charging pace). The actual speed of the
march would depend on the condition of the roads; deep mud or steep slopes
would restrict the best marchers to a crawl." (Elting 1997:462-463) [These
speeds might appear to be very low. However, they are attained by the
heavily loaded people marching long distances for long periods of time -
          o The average etape varied from 10 to 22 miles [= 16.1 to 35.4 km
- tmc]; the average was approximately fifteen [= 24.1 km - tmc]. If a
maneuver required 'forced' marches, the usual solution was to increase the
length of the daily march, 'doubling the etapes to cover 30 to 35 miles a
day [48.3 to 56.3 km/day - tmc], rather than increase the rate of march."
(Elting 1997:463)
          o In Jan 1797 Massena's division covered 54 miles in two nights
and one day [36 hrs - tmc], in order to fight 3 separate battles, each a
day, long [approx 86.9 km, average speed 57.9 km/day, or 2.4 km/hr - tmc]
(Chandler 1993:121).
          o In Aug 1796 "Augerau marched his division over a distance of 50
miles in 36 hrs to reach the [battle]field of Castiglione." [approx 80.4 km,
average speed 53.6 km/day, or 2.2 km/hr - tmc] (Chandler 1993:148).
          o Napoleon "under more or less normal conditions [..] expected
[his marching troops to cover only an average of between 10 and 12 miles a
day." [average speed 16.1 and 19.3 km/day - tmc] (Chandler 1993:148).
          o In Sep/Oct 1805 "During the period between September 24 and
October 16 Marshal Soult's command [...] covered a total of 275 miles - no
mean feat of sustained marching." [approx 442.5 km in 23 days, average speed
19.2 km/day - tmc] (Chandler 1993:148).
          o In Dec 1805 "Davout drove the leading division of III Corps over
the staggering distance of 140 kilometers in a little over than 48 hours -
no less than 35 of which were spent on the road." [70 km/day, and 4 km/hr -
tmc] (Chandler 1993:148).
          o In Dec 1805 "Friant's division of Davout's III Corps [marched]
from Vienna to Austerlitz in 1805: More than 70 miles in thirty-six hours
without halting." [112.6 km in 36 hrs = 3.13 km/hr - tmc] (Elting 1997:463).
          o Iranian 'farsak' is "the distance a man travels over a flat
ground in an hour - about three and half miles." (Newby 1974:126) [approx
speed 5.6 km/hr - tmc]
          o Two un-acclimatised travellers on a road in Jul 1956 in
Afghanistan, carrying 40 pounds each, covered some 10 miles in 3 hours
(Newby 1974:116) [approx speed 5.3 km/hr - tmc]
          o Afghan butter carriers in Nuristan [NE Afghanistan] in Jul 1956
carried loads (in a hand-made backpack) about 64 pounds for 8.5 days across
a rugged mountainous terrain from Pushal, via Semenek Pass to Chitral, a
distance of some 150 miles [approx 240 km, average speed 28.4 km/day - tmc]
(Newby 1974:200,217)
          o A group of four bushwalkers walked "the full lenght of the
Australian Alps walking track, which runs from the edge of the Baw Baw
National Park in Victoria ... and through the Snowy region to [Tharwa, in]
Canberra." They covered the exact 650 km distance in 34 days. [average speed
19.12 km/day - tmc] (The Canberra Times, p.9, Jan 20, 2001) 
    * people on animals
          o dromedary camel: 6.5 km/hr (Smits 1999)
          o horse: 5.0 km/hr (Smits 1999)
          o Darius I the Great (r. 521-486 BCE), established (ca. 515 BCE) a
network of military roads spanning the Persian Empire and a government only,
courier service employing horse-riders. Along those roads, every four
parsangs (every 22.44 km) there were posting houses and caravanserais at
which relays of horses were kept for the governmental couriers. In the
Western part of the empire a 2,475 kms (1,500 mi) long "Royal Road" linked
Sardes (Sart) with Susa (Shust). At the common rate of travel that distance
could be covered in 90 days (average travel speed = 27.5 kms/day). However,
the relay system of imperial couriers could move a message across that
distance in 7 days (average communication speed = 353.6 kms/day) (Fuller
1958:76-78, PWN 1966:771). [both couriers and horses appear to be changed at
the posts]
          o Genghis Khan devised a system of relay messengers, who "mounted
on [sturdy] ponies [...] scoured his empire [...] often covering as much as
160km/100mls in a day." (Livesey 1987:34)
          o "The Tatars who carried the Austrian imperial mail in the early
nineteenth century took five days over the journey [from Nish in Bulgaria to
Constantinople], travelling at full gallop and using relays. [The distance
is over 650 miles. This means speed = over 130 miles/day or 209.2 km/day -
tmc.]" (Runciman 1978a:125)
          o Henry de Valois, the king of Poland (for 118 days), abandoned
the throne and fled the country for France (to assume the freshly vacated
French throne), on 19 June 1574. He travelled from Cracow, via Pszczyna (aka
Pless), into Moravia, and then to Vienna, Venice, Milan, Turin, Lyon and
Paris. "On that first day, he rode 72 miles without rest." [Assuming 18 hrs
of travel, the average speed (incl. the time spent on changing horses and
other stopovers), was 4 miles/hr or 6.44 km/hr. Alternatively, assuming the
av. speed of 5 km/hr, the travel took 116 km/5 = 23.2 hrs - tmc] (Davies
          o "Normal 'amble speed' for a walking [dromedary] camel is
5kph/3mph; a working camel will typically cover 40km/25 miles a
day."(ArabNet 1996)
          o "Racing camels can reach 20kph/12mph at the gallop." (ArabNet
          o bactrian camel "can travel 25-40 km per day for one month."
(Cheng 1984)
          o On the road in Panjshir valley in Afghanistan in July of 1956
there was "a band of Tajiks mounted on donkeys who were on their way from
Jurm in Badakshan more than 150 miles to the north-east to buy teapots and
tea at Gulbahar; they had been twelve days on the road and the skin around
their eyes was all shrivelled by the sun." (Newby 1974: 112). [average speed
12.5 miles/day or 20.1 km/ day - tmc]
          o Various paces for one-humped camel: the walk (4km/hr); the jog
(9.5-13 km/hr, 'this being the usual pace for a riding camel'); the fast run
(14.5-19 km.hr) and the canter. Leese (1927) cited in Wilson, R.T.
          o Leese (1927) describing one-humped camels "gives the average
day's travel as 65-80 km which can be maintained for a period of up to 2
weeks." Longer distances impose time penalities: 112 for each of the two
days, and 144 for 1 day only. "In all cases proper rest periods for a
minimum of 7 days are required before further demands are made." (Wilson,
    * beasts of burden
          o pack-horse: 4 miles/hr, working 8 hrs (Engels 1978:15)
          o dromedary pack-camel: 3.6-4.4 km/hr (Smits 1999)
          o dromedary caravan: 4.45 km/hr (Smits 1999)
          o bactrian pack-camel 3.1-4.4 km/hr (when travelling 8 hrs day)
(Cheng 1984)
          o bactrian pack-camel 3.6-5 km/hr (when travelling 7 hrs day)
(Cheng 1984)
          o "Caravans [were] travelling 20 to 35 miles a day" (Anonymous
1997). [approx speed 32-56 km/day, the latter value appearing to be
impossibly high - tmc]
          o A 30 camel caravan, with animals organised in trains of 5-6
animals each, would strech across a distance 2-3 miles (Blackmore 1995: 43).

    * carts & draft animals
          o ca. 60 BCE Government regular postal service employing horse
drawn carts, on routes between Rome and provincial capitals, is introduced
by Julius Caesar (PWN 1966:771). At that time ordinary travellers averaged
about 50 miles a day [5 miles/hr, assuming 10 hr day - tmc] using reda, a
light four-wheeled vehicle. In cases of urgency, official couriers could
cover by reda over 160 miles in 24 hours [6.7 miles/hr - tmc ] (Fuller
          o Rome, 1st c. CE - "On the land the imperial post service covered
some fifty miles [80.4 km] a day, but ordinary commercial traffic would be
slower." (Scullard 1970:343)
          o The average 2-oxen cart ... will move less than half as far per
day [at 2 mph. working 5 hr - tmc] as a horse [at 4 mph. working 8 hr -
tmc]. (Engels 1978:15).
          o In Aug/Sep 1683, during King Jan Sobieski's war against Turkey
"eight thousand wagons with food for six months [for 26,000 men - tmc]
rumbled on [through Bohemia] at fifteen miles a day." (Davies 1982:481)
[average speed = 24.2 km/day - tmc]
          o In Napoleon's "preparation for a renewed invasion of Spain in
1808, Victor's corps was brought from Berlin, and Ney's from Glogau, to the
Rhine in relays of hired wehicles, covering some 75 miles a day. To avoid
loss of time, meals were ready for them at each halting time, and they slept
as they went jolting along." [= 120.7 km/day] (Elting 1997:464)
          o In the mid-18th c. on a route Moscow-St. Petersburg Russian
2-horse carts travelled in summer about 50 km a day (Curtin 1984:191)
          o In the mid-18th c. on a route Moscow-St. Petersburg Russian
[3-horse?] sledges travelled in winter about 65 km a day (Curtin 1984:191) 
    * boats and ships
          o boat [unspecified propulsion: rowing? sailing?]: 6.0 km/hr
(Smits 1999)
          o Greece, Classical. - "Ships... were underrigged.., and hence
slow (their best speed with a favouring wind was no more than six knots [10
km/hr]." (Casson 1984:25)
          o Roman, Imperial. - "Ancient ships could make between 4 and 6
knots [7.4 km - 11.1 km/hr] with a fair wind and thus log roughly 50
nautical miles [92.6 km] during a day's run." (Casson 1984:194)
          o Crusaders travelling in April 1096 from Brindisi, Italy "after a
rough voyage of four days landed at Dyrrhachium [Epir - tmc]." (Runciman
1978a:168) []
          o In 1615, a sailship "on the direct run [...] with a fair wind
[could cover] the 850 sea miles [1574.2 km - tmc] to Amsterdam [...] in a
week." (Davies 1982:260). [average speed 121.4 nautical miles/day, about 5
n.miles/hr; 225 km/day or 9.4 km/hr - tmc]
          o In Summer 1704 Marlborough planned to move his army from Coblenz
to Bedburg by barges floating down the R. Rhine at the rate of 80 miles per
day [128.7 km/day tmc] (Chandler 1996:43). 

7. Time budget data
[time neeeded to accomplish routine tasks: time allocated for daily travel,
time to strike a camp, saddle a horse etc.]

    * Emperor Alexius in 1096 in order to prevent raiding and straggling
tried make sure that the arriving "Crusaders never remained more than three
days at any one place." (Runciman 1978a:156)
    * In Napoleon's army on the march "there was an hourly five-minute halt
[...] At midday there was a grande halte of one hour during which soldiers
dined on whatever they had with them. [...] Roughly once a week marching
troups would be allowed a sejour (twenty-four-hour halt) to sort themselves
out, repair shoes and clothing, and let straggles catch-up." (Elting
    * In summer, travellers in Nuristan [NE Afghanistan] would start the
journey in the 3rd hour in the morning and would finish their day's journey
by the noon. (Newby 1974:121,125) [this suggests travel time about 9 hrs/day
- tmc]
    * In 1993 Blackmore's expedition of 15 people (including 6 camel
handlers) and 30 camels which crossed Taklamakan desert took 2 hrs every day
to load the animals (Blackmore 1995: photo 32).
            1. When long distances have to be covered it is better to pack
the camels over 5 days and give 2 days complete rest than to accomplish the
objective in 7 days marching. [range 5*30 = 150kms, 5*40=200 kms - tmc]
            2. Do not trek during the heat of the day,. make two stages, a
longer one in the morning [...].
            3. Start as early as possible, say 0300 hours, stop for 30
minutes before sunrise to allow camels to forage but without unloading. Stop
trekking in general about 2 hours after sunrise, possibly 3 hours in cool
            4. The afternoon session should be completed before sunset to
allow the camels to graze, which the do better in the evening.
            5. Seven hours a day is generally sufficient: good baggage
camels will cover 30 km in this time and the very best up to 40 km. [speeds
30/7hrs = 4.3 kms/hr, 40/7hrs = 5.7kms/hr tmc]
            6. Where there is an absolute necessity to cover long distances
in a short time three stages will be necessary: early morning, late
afternoon and night. This might total 10 hours of march and will necessitate
extra grain feeding which should be given in the evening." (Wilson, R.T.
1984:151) [range 10hrs*4.3 = 43 kms, 10hrs*5.7 = 57kms - tmc] 

8. Staging posts data

    * Darius I the Great (r. 521-486 BCE), established (ca. 515 BCE) a
network of military roads spanning the Persian Empire and a government only,
courier service employing horse-riders. Along those roads, every four
parsangs (every 22.44 km) there were posting houses and caravanserais at
which relays of horses were kept for the governmental couriers. (Fuller
1958:76-78, PWN 1966:771).
    * Genghis Khan devised a system of relay messengers, who "mounted on
[sturdy] ponies [...] scoured his empire [...] often covering as much as
160km/100mls in a day. Stations, sited some 40km/25mls apart, had been
established on all the major roads, where the arrow messengers, bells on
their saddles announcing their arrival, could collect food and change
horses. [...] Genghis Khan's organization comprised more than 250,000 ponies
and some 10,000 stations." [The communication network provided 25 ponies per
relay station and covered some 400,000 kms of roads - tmc] (Livesey 1987:34)
    * in 1805 "The 200-odd-mile [approx. 322 km - tmc] length of road
between Strasbourg and Augsburg was divided into seventeen sections [i.e.
approx. 12 miles or approx 19.3 kms long each -tmc], with a relay of sixty
4-horse waggons assigned to each one; that system was to continue on across
Austria as the Grande Armee advanced." (Elting 1997:562)
    * In Apr 1860 St. Joseph, Missouri and Sacramento, California are linked
by the Pony Express. Four hundred horses, especially selected for speed and
endurance were used on a 10 day (12-16 days in winter), some 2000miles/3220
kilometer route. Each rider had to cover sixty miles (100 km) in six hours,
using six different ponies supplied by some 165 stations placed at about
24.3 miles (39.0 km) intervals. Riders changed to a fresh horse every 10-15
miles [this means that a rider travelled with an additional pony - tmc]. New
riders took over every 75 to 100 miles. (Schietinger, Jörg and Linda
Brüggemann 1998). [= average speed 322km/day; av. speed 10 miles/16.1 km/hr
- tmc]

9. Travel times data

      Travel times 

10. Loading capacity data

      Loading capacity 

11. Navigation data

    * Horse droppings can be used to confirm the course of a barely
discernible mountain-trail (Newby 1974:187) 

12. Effects of seasons data

    * seasons
          o Greece, Classical - "Ancient maritime trade, with few
exceptions, was carried on only during the summer, roughly from May to
October. With the coming of fall, ships were put up for winter, quays were
abandoned,and ports, like summer resorts today, went into hibernation."
(Casson 1984:25)
          o Rome, 1st c. CE - "Sea voyages were avoided in the winter."
(Scullard 1970:343)
          o Rome, 1st c. CE - "May and June were precisely the months when
the first shipments of grain from Alexandria arrived at Puteoli." (Casson
          o Rome, 1st c. CE - "June is one of two months in which most
cargoes from Egypt arrived [to Italy - tmc]." (Casson 1984:107)
          o "Rhodes-Egypt was one of the few runs that could be made all
year, even in winter." (Casson 1984:89)
          o Rome, 1st c. CE? - "Navigation [between Baetican province,
(modern Andalusia, in S. Spain) and Puteoli (Puzzuoli, Italy), and later
Ostia (Italy) ], essentially coastal navigation, took place from April to
September." (Anonymous-2, n.d.). 
    * winds
          o Mediterranean Sea - "In summer... the prevailing winds over the
waters between Italy and Egypt are strong northwesterlies." (Casson 1984:15)
          o Aegean Sea - Northerlies are the prevailing summer winds in the
Cyclades. (Casson 1984:15,80)
          o Route from Egypt, or the Levant, or the south coast of Asia to
Italy "because of the wind conditions in the Mediterranean, the course for
Italy went south of Crete." (Casson 1984:89)
          o "Over the northern half of the [Red] sea, the wind blows from
the north in all seasons." (Curtin 1984:97) 
    * monsoons
          o Monsoon rains start in Sri Lanka around 25 of May and about 15
July in the Punjab. (no Refs.).
          o Chart of Prevailing Winds from the Red Sea to East Africa and
India (Casson 1984:186) 

                   Jun-Aug              Sep                  Oct     
Red Sea south         N,NW          N,NW shifting             S,SE
of 20 degree N                      to variable
Gulf of Aden        S,SW,W          S,SW,W              variable shifting
                                                           to E, ENE
E. African coast      S,SW        S,SW shifting to      S,SW shifting to
to Zanzibar                       NE with variables     NE with variables
                                  and calms             and calms
NW coast of India       SW       W,SW with variables    S,SW shifting to
                                 and calms              NE
SW coast of India       SW       W,SW shifting to       light northerlies
                   Nov-Dec           Dec-Mar           Apr            May
Red Sea south       S,SE             S,SE            S,SE       S,SE
of 20 degree N                                                  to N,NE
Gulf of Aden        E,ENE            E,ENE           E,ENE      E,ENE also
E. African coast    N,NE             N,NE          NE shifting  NE shifting
to Zanzibar                                         to S,SW       to S,SW
NW coast of India   N,NE             N,NE          NW to SW     S,SW
SW coast of India   N,NE             N,NE          NW to SW     S,SW     

          o snow and ice
                + Nuristan in NE Afghanistan is accessible via "passes
between 12,000 and 16,000 feet high [4-5.3 km], only negotiable on foot and
closed by deep snow between October and March." (Newby 1974:85). 
          o drinking water (rain and springs)
                + "The Iranian Plateau straddles the crossroads of our
world, providing a continuously snow free route between Europe, the
Mediterranean and Egypt, India and lands East. The summer road over the
Iranian plateau leads to Transoxiana and beyond to China. The winter road
crosses South Iran to the Indus. The states along this route profited from
the trade, often becoming dependent on it, and their isolation was reduced."
(Far 1995) [was there water shortage along the Taklimakan desert during the
winter months? - tmc] 
          o size of rivers (freezing, flooding)
          o noxious insects
          o temperature extremes
                + [In a desert - tmc] "The temperature my vary from as much
as 55C during the day down to 10C at night; warm clothes are essential.[...]
The temperature of the desert sand and rock averages 15 to 20 degrees more
than that of the air." (Lewis 1997:130)
                + "Air temperatures of -40C and wind velocities of 30 knots
are acommon in Arctic and sub-Arctic terrains. In these conditions, withouth
clothes, you would be dead in about 15 minutes." (Lewis 1997:63) 
          o storms, duststorms, snow-storms, avalanches
          o availability of food, fodder, fuel and shelter 

12. Commodities and quantities data

    * weapons
    * luxury items (gems, metals, ivory, arts &craft, perfumes, incense)
    * medicinal stuff
    * raw and semi-processed materials (metal ingots, timber, wax, tar)
    * salt
    * foodstuffs (grain, oil, wine, fruit)
          o "Under Augustus, Egypt [i.e. Alexandria] provided Rome annually
with 5,000,000 bushels [of grain], ca.135,000 tons [1 ton being here ca. 37
bushels - tmc], an enormous amount that filled fully one-third of the city
needs." (Casson 1984:81) 
    * spices
          o Venice ca 1500 imported from Alexandria "2,500,000 pounds of
spices ... every winter. It would take just five 250-tonners [500,000 lb
each - tmc] to carry the whole shipment." (Lane 1934:26 cited in Casson
    * textiles, tapestries and furs
    * pottery and glass
    * animals (horses, burden animals, circus animals)
    * slaves
    * contraband (eg. silkworm) 

Burton Choinski
Principal Software Engineer, Quality Engineering
email: burton.choinski at matrixone.com

phone: 978-589-4089
fax:      978-589-5903

MatrixOne, Inc.
210 Littleton Rd.
Westford, Ma 01886

The First in Intelligent Collaborative Commerce

-----Original Message-----
From: Alex Koponen [mailto:akoponen at mosquitonet.com]
Sent: Saturday, February 21, 2004 12:06 AM
Subject: [PnP] Re: Healing Table

  In an effort to maximize a Healer's ability to patch up people the
Healer may choose to learn the Eroticist skill (or at least the General
Knowledge of the healing massage aspects of the skill).
  This grants a bonus for healing of (EL/5)+1 (RU) to StB and CB.

  To expand the prior (from Jan. 31, 2004) example:
  Presume a fairly normal PC, St20 and C33, giving a StB+1 and HC27%.
The character is badly hurt and needs healing.

  A Healing spell will heal 1D6+StB+EL and courtesy of Rule 1.343 will
also give a bonus Healing Chance roll with whatever bonuses medicine and
magic have applied. A simple EL0 Healing spell in this case will heal
1D6+1 points and cause the bonus Healing Chance roll to be 32%. If made
this would be another 2-4 points healed. Total average of 5.46 points

  The trained healer gets to give their skill bonus (ELx2) PLUS the
bandage bonus PLUS the herb bonus to the HC (Healing Chance). The Healer
also grants a StB of EL/3 (RU) to the next HC roll. If an Eroticist gives
a massage this also increases the StB (and CB).

  Let us first have a Healer use the Healing skill including the bandaging
(+5%) and herb (+10% if using Cinquefoil) HC modifiers.
[Other herbs may change the modifier.]
EL0 Healing spell plus EL1 Healer averages 6.46.
< 4.5  +  (32+2+15)% (2-4)+1 >
If we add EL1 Eroticist this goes up to an average of 7.44.
EL0 Healing spell plus EL7 Healer averages 8.16.
If we add EL6 Eroticist this goes up to an average of 9.99.
EL0 Healing spell plus EL13 Healer averages 10.34.
If we add EL11 Eroticist this goes up to an average of 13.26
Increasing the EL of the Healing spell similarly enhances the StB and
Healing Chance.

The extreme example of a EL13 healing skill and EL11 Eroticist healing
massage followed by a EL9 Healing spell should average (starting with a
base StB+1 and HC27%) (10-16) 13.5 direct healing and
(HC27+26+50=automatically makes the roll) 15 on the Healing
Chance healing for a total of (25-32) 28.5 points healed on average.

  Courtesy of Rule 1.343 magical healing allows TWO HC rolls per day.
So for maximum healing without risking 'death by healing' one can have one
magical healing plus one bonus HC roll (w/o risk of infection) plus the
normal HC roll. Eroticist and Healing skills, bandages and herbs can add
to the HC% on both HC rolls. Magical bonuses apply to the bonus HC roll.

Hmmm...looks like my healer is going to try to learn a new skill to
improve her healing abilities. (Should I heal those who joke about the
skill she plans to get?)

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