[PnP] Ships - General Information

Scott Adams longshot at darktech.org
Sat Oct 28 04:26:20 CEST 2006

                      Powers & Perils Ships Supplement

   * Table of Contents

             History of Ships and Boats
             History of Navigation
             Miscellaneous Information 
             Perilous Lands Geography Aspects
             Ship Cargo
             Ship Crews
             New Skills
             New Guilds
             Ship Operations
             Credits and Acknowledgements
             Contact Information 

   * Introduction

        This document contains supplemental information for use with the
     Powers & Perils RPG system.  It can be used for the Perilous Lands
     supplement but doesn't have to.  In fact this supplement can fit in
     with just about any fantasy rpg system.  While a lot of this material
     is factual based on Earth technology and data some of the information
     is made up or conjectured from existing data.  In researching this
     material I read two books "Ships and Seamanship" which covers many
     topics of ancient ships and the whole aspect of seamanship.  The
     other book was the "Athenian Trireme" which actually used science to
     reconstruct an ancient Athenian Trireme and give precise data on it
     from construction of its timber deck to the sails and other aspects.
     I hope this material is of some benefit for you and your players.
     The Referee is free to modify any and all material herein to fit his
     or her needs in their campaign.  This is only a general outline to
     serve as a starting point for your games.  If you have questions or
     comments you are free to contact me (see the bottom Contact Info
     section). Be advised this document only contains miscellaneous info
     that could not be covered in other documents.  Many topics were
     placed into their own files for ease of reading and access.  

   * History of Ships and Boats

        The history of ships on Earth is a complex subject that is beyond
     the scope of this document.  To get a better idea of how your world
     may have developed ships in their past one must study the history
     on Earth of ships.

        The earliest forms of boats were Rafts from simple logs (single or
     tied together logs) to Keleks.  A Kelek was a floating raft of air
     bladders and leather.  Hanibal even used a Kelek for War Elephants
     that was 100x50 feet in size.  Also there were Pot Rafts which used
     ceramic pots rather than bladders.  The earliest boats were animal
     skin boats, clay tubes, the Dugout, and the Bark Canoe.  Then came
     the planked boat which included the keel and sides or ribs of planks
     which were the first generation of boats.  The Egyptians would create
     large barges which could then carry the large stones for pyramids.
     Babylonians then came up with a oared ship (11 oarsman) which was
     around 20 tons as the typical largest size of that time.

        Soon came the development of Bireme, Quadreme and finally the era
     of the Trireme.  For centuries the common warship of any nation
     would become the Trireme.  Soon ships termed 'threes', 'fours',
     'fives' and more would come about.  In fact the largest ancient ship
     was the 'forty'.   These terms determined the amount of oarsman on
     the ship based on files or columns.

        The ancient world would see sea powers like the Greeks, Romans,
     Persians, Babylonians and others come to power and battle on the high
     seas.  A typical campaign was one like the Salamis Campaign which
     included battle with over 3,000 ships each an average of 4 tons with
     crew of 80 oarsman and 30 others (soldiers, deck hands).  In the
     Pelopnesian War over 200 Triremes were involved.  So ancient battles
     had many number of ships in battle.  

        As technology improved with navigation, charts and warfare the
     ships changed.  Soon gunpowder drove ships to form large War Galleons
     bristling with cannons.  Large ships of hundreds of crews were
     typical lasting in trips over thousands of miles.

        For Powers & Perils though the history of ships would stop before
     gunpowder technology level.  The typical ship would be that of the
     Trireme for warfare.  This of course is up to the Referee and how he
     runs the world.

   * History of Navigation

        The history of ship navigation is brief in terms of game mechanics.
     The first ones to use the earliest boats did not navigate but went to
     water and hoped they got to their location.  In many cases those
     people were lost or adrift which caused new lands to be found (like
     in the Pacific).

        Early sailors learned to use the wind, the sky and animals (like
     birds) to navigate.  At the invention of higher sciences like
     mathematics, geometry, geography and astronomy navigation improved.
     Map making was then possible, first local maps from rivers to sea
     coasts and then to entire continents.

        Navigation aids like the Sextant improved the sailor's chances of
     successful navigation.  Most early sailors would not leave the safety
     of the coastline (always in sight).  It took many brave sailors to
     venture into deep water to explore nearby regions of the globe.

        In the Perilous Lands many of the sea going nations like Fomoria
     developed their own sciences for sea travel.  The current pioneers in
     the sea sciences like navigation, warfare and construction is in the
     schools spread out around the globe.  One of the current best schools
     is in Ticasi where sailors can learn the most advanced science of
     sailing and up to date technology.  Of course magic plays a vital
     role in navigation in the Perilous Lands.  Magic helps to increase
     range and safety of ships sailing in deep waters.

   * Miscellaneous Information 

        This section contains notes and information that can not be
     covered in other sections or documents.  This is a catch-all section
     that covers facts or notes that may be of interest.

        1. Towing Fact: A towing ship was typically 1-22 tons with a crew
           of 2-18.  The ships that were towed could travel 20 kilometers
           per day or 30-35 if going downstream.

        2. Merchant Facts: It was common for merchant ships in ancient times
           to carry 450 tons of cargo easily.  On average most merchants
           were 130 tons in ancient times.  

        3. Ship Timber Fact: Timber was made mainly from Oak, Pine, Poplar,
           and Fir.  Masts and Oars typically made from Fir.

        4. Oarer Fact: Each oarsmen need a minimum of 3 feet of space to
           work in.  A single Oar was later replaced by a Sweeping oar
           which was one giant oar for greater muscle power.  Oarers require
           1.7 tons of water per 10 hour day.  It was common for Triremes
           and other ships to have a wooden canopy for protection against
           rain/weather for the oarsmen.  A ship could row backwards
           at 5 knots in 20 seconds away from a rammed ship.  Each rower
           carried his own personal gear (oar, oar loop (leather) and
           sea cushion).  While the 1.7 ton figure is for a Trireme ship
           of rowers on average it took 1 liter of water per hour per
           rower to keep them going.

        5. Oars Fact: A Oar was 9-9.5 Cubits in length, 13' 6" to 14'.
           The longest was admidships.  The porthole where the Oar was
           placed was 18 inches with a leather bag to seal in against
           water and weather.  Oars typically made of fir.  A oar
           was typically 4-7 kilograms in weight.  A ship typically
           carried 30 spares due to cracks.  Per hour an average of
           1-2 oar breaks.  This is where the Carpenter fixes them.
           Typically on average an oar was 168 cm height. Oars were
           typically found on warships only but some other ships like
           merchants used them.  Oars were typically 18" from waterline
           to the oar itself usually.

        6. Land transport: Many ships were carried overland by dividing
           up pieces of the ship and placed up on rollers for transport
           depending on the size.  If light enough most were just carried
           by hand.

        7. Ship Life Fact: A Trireme only lasted 20 years on average.

        8. Horse Transport Facts: Most horse carriers only had 60 rowers
           but could carry up to 30 horses.

        9. Towers: Ship towers could be collapsed for use by archers.

       10. Galley Fact: The galley was where food was prepared.  Typically
           it was 9x5 feet in size in a 70 feet long boat.  

       11. Oil on ships (lanterns, etc.) was typically 0.9 kilograms for
           1 liter of oil.  

       12. Formula for burden of ship
           (Length of keel x (beam x half of beam  ) / 94 tons.
           Note: A true formula used by some documents for displacement
           among other aspects but not too functional for games.  It
           is given here as a side note.  

       12. Ballast Fact: Ballast tended to be sand and/or stone.

       13. Bilge: At the bottom of the ship was typically water mixed
           with twigs and sticks in which people could walk on.

       14. Trireme: The number of rowers equals out Thranite- 62,
           Zygite- 54, Thalnite-54 at 170 total.  Plus about 30 others
           half which were fighting marines.  Typically a Trireme weighed
           10-25 tons of hull.  With half of that being men and gear.
           Most Triremes carried 30 soldiers or could carry 30 horses.
           A trireme was stable up to winds of 25 knots and was handled
           2-10 knots of winds on average.  A typical days travel was
           60 nautical miles (110 kilometers).

       15. Ropes and sails were typically made from papyrus or flax.

       16. Gangway Fact: Typically 1.2 meters wide. 

       17. Markings/Names: Typically warships have markings and their
           names up front.  While a Merchant has rear markers and the
           name is placed on the rear rather than side.

       18. To load or unload Oarers into place it took 10-15 minutes.
           it took half with ladders and 2 gangplanks.  If there is an
           emergency evacuation oarers could go over the side in just
           24 seconds.
       19. Rudder fact: Most rudders on large ships were 5 meters long
           with stocks and tillers that can be turned (both by the
           helmsman if wish to do so).

       20. Ship Ropes: It took typically 280-340 feet of rope from bow
           to stern to tie it together for rough sea sailing.

       21. While Triremes were less durable, expensive to build and supply
           other ships helped out a nation's resources.  The Penteconter
           was more durable and less expensive.  Penteconters also had
           more room for supplies, less crew and good for war and trading
           both.  The Quadrireme used 4 oarsmen but only 1 was skilled.

       22. Starvation: While on the water it is important to keep track of
           dehydration.  The rules on Starvation that Wout has come up
           works fine and should be consulted.  Magic can help in this area
           to prevent starvation.  

       23. A nation's Gross National Income determines how many ships a
           nation can build and maintain yearly.  For war this figure can
           be used for quick assessment of such figures.

       24. Naval Power: The culture power chart shows power ratings for
           each country.  To maintain a balance of power in times of war
           a quick assessment of naval power can be determined.  For every
           10 Naval Vessels 1 power point is gained and for every 5 Heavy
           Vessels (Trireme or better) 1 power point is gained.  This data
           can be used on a geopolitical analysis of powers.  

       25. A study of anchors was made.  We determined that in the end
           an anchor should weigh at least 1% of the ship's overall
           weight.  The figure ranged from 0.7 to 1.4% for smaller and
           larger ships.  But to make things uniform and the math to
           work out in the end 1% seems fair.  The Referee can determine
           other percentages if needed. Here are some anchor facts:
           A. By 300 BC vessels of the Athenian navy were equipped with
              iron anchors weighing up to 440 pounds.
           B. There was discovered, after 1800 years submersion, a
              wood-sheathed iron anchor weighing about 1000 pounds.
           C. The Statutes of Genoa of 1441 AD required a 1500-ton ship
              to carry 12 iron anchors of from 1600 to 1800 pounds each.
              [19200-21600 pounds - 10 tons of anchors]
           D. The "Sovereign of the Seas," 1600 tons, in 1637 carried 12
              anchors of 4000 pounds each. In 1690 Sir Wm. Phipps in his
              attack on Quebec lost a [24 tons of anchors for 1600 tons]
           Anchors were made from stone or iron in the ancient world.

   * Perilous Lands Geography Aspects

        This section details some geographical aspects of water and some
     basic rules and notes for each.  It is meant as information Referees
     can get a good start from.

        A. Lighthouses:  Lighthouses were common in the ancient world in
     the civilized areas.  The Great Lighthouse in Egypt was said to be
     over 300 feet tall.  Its light could be seen from 70 miles (50
     kilometers).  During the night a giant bonfire was made for this
     light.  During the day a mirror was used to reflect the sun.  Based
     on this and other data the following rules could be applied:

           1. For every 4 feet of lighthouse 1 mile of the light source
     (fire/sun) can be seen.  Thus a 100 foot tower can be seen for 20
     miles (100/4=20x1=20 miles).
           2. It takes 1-2 people to maintain a constant bonfire all
     night.  But at day only 1 is needed to fix problems.
           3. Some lighthouses have built in elevators for wood to be
     raised up to the top for ease rather than taking up the stairs/steps.
           4. Most lighthouses only had 1 mirror set and rarely had
     spares in case of problems.  Some nations could afford spares however.
           5. Most lighthouses had 1 or 2 families that stayed on site
     on set schedules or year round.  Some may have rotation schedules.
           6. As a guideline the light source can be diminished by the
     local weather:
                  Weather Condition       Diminished by
                  Rain - Light                 5%
                  Rain - Medium               10%
                  Rain - Heavy                30%
                  Thunderstorm [Intense]      60%
                  Fog  - Light                 5%
                  Fog  - Medium               10%
                  Fog  - Heavy [Blanket]      15%
                  Snow - Light                10%
                  Snow - Medium               20%
                  Snow - Heavy [Blizzard]     80%
              The decrease is in the range of the light seen.  

           Most lighthouses were placed in very remote locations in places
     where ships are in the worst danger.  Reefs and common water hazards
     are the main reason for lighthouses.  Some of these remote locations
     did not have wood resources (barren islands).  In those cases large
     oil setups were used but were more dangerous to the people and
     structure itself.  Magical lighthouses can increase the lightsource
     range seen, automatic fire and light magics to name a few.  Some
     magical lighthouses could include different color lights for signals
     to friendly forces.  The referee will have to determine the exact
     effects of the magic for the lighthouse.
           The Referee should allocate lighthouses in his or her world
     so players will know about them.  Some nations that lightly already
     have them would include Fomoria, Clima and Lemasa to name a few.
           To create the "rotation" effect of the light the bonfire doesn't
     need to rotate.  During the day a preset style of mechanics, steam
     or water powered wheels could be setup to rotate a platform.  

        B. Foghorn: While the ancient world did not see Foghorns this does
     not mean the world you play in doesn't have them.  Magic can come
     into play here.  The effect of a noise can be utilized by magical
     means.  The distance is generally 1-3 miles that it can be heard
     depending on the noise.  The referee will have to determine the
     details of the foghorn site.  As with lighthouses foghorns are placed
     in remote places generally where fog or bad weather is a factor.

        C. Buoy/Beacons: Buoys came first just before the 13th century
     on Earth.  For Powers and Perils these devices can be critical for
     ship navigation.  These tend to warn ships of water dangers.  Some
     other beacons can display wind data (general speed, direction)
     as well.  Beacons can alert of reefs, sandbars and fast moving
     currents (for swimmers).  Most buoys and beacons are set around
     coastal towns and their docks.  Many are set in rivers while others
     can be set along the coastline.  The Referee and Dockmaster will
     have to determine the type and purpose of each beacon.
           All buoys and beacons are placed in the water.  They float
     above the danger or near the danger in the water.  They are weighted
     down by anchors in place so even the biggest current and winds do
     not shift their position.  Most beacons may only be a simple floating
     structure.  While others may have bells, chimes or other noise
     makers.  Some may have light sources to show their location at night.
     These light sources may be torches (that are lit every night by
     people), lanterns (lit every night) or magical (that come up at night
           Since the world of magic exists some beacons can even have
     magic to defend a location or attack nearby ships that enter a place
     they guard.  The player and Referee is free to come up with the
     various details.
           These beacons are a lot cheaper to make than lighthouses so
     nations may have more of these.  

        D. Signals/Flags: While buoy and beacons serve a purpose there
     may be structures on land and water to display signals, warnings
     and flags.  These are even cheaper and easier to build than
     beacons.  These structures can even be mobile.  Some nations use
     walls with towers as signal posts.  For example, towers placed
     at every mile can use smoke and fire to signal towers all along
     a coastal region quickly like the Great Wall of China or the Roman
     Walls in England did.  For ships these structures can be setup
     to send messages to passing ships or warn them of new dangers.
     It takes training for a person to use the signals and flags on
     ships and lands effectively.

        E. Canals: While Suez and Panama are modern great examples the
     ancient world had the work force in place to make canals.  In
     the ancient world some canals were found in South America 6,700
     years ago in the Andes region.  Canals do not require technology
     other than brute strength to move earth and create dams.  In the
     Perilous lands canals can create a new balance of power in some
     regions for interesting play.  For example in Xan a canal could
     be made to connect the Sea of Tears with the Western Ocean.
           A whole new industry of earth movers can be done by magic
     users and the Dwarfs.  

        F. Dams: Dams require also no technology so can be easily done.
     Dams serve many purposes.  To help in agriculture, to build up
     water sources, to build up height of rivers or lakes or to prevent
     water getting to nearby nations.  Dams should be considered for
     game play to create realism.

        G. Waterfalls: Waterfalls also had realism to a game world. They
     can add spice for players or passing ships.  The tallest on earth
     is the Angel falls over 3,212 feet.  As a guideline though you can
     make waterfalls only a few feet to thousands.  A trickle of water
     to a raging wave water wall like Niagara.  For ships waterfalls can
     be created to force dangerous routes in rivers.  According to Richard
     in the Perilous Lands the tallest mountains are the Dalya Mountains
     in the Cerulean Empire. According to legend, its top is in the
     upper world. The tallest mountains on an average height per peak
     basis are the Kameran mountains.  With this information you can
     create tall waterfalls in these regions.
           Waterfalls have their own myths and legends in the fantasy
     world.  Many creatures live behind waterfalls and use it as a lair.
     This aspect can also be introduced into your world.

        H. Water Rapids: Water rapids are created where rivers become
     shallow and rocks create obstructions to waterflow.  Rapids tend
     to only allow small craft to travel over them.  Large ships may
     be knocked about and crushed in the rocks.  Water Grades or Levels
     vary depending on water depth and water flow.  A level 1 rapid may
     decrease to level 3 if the river swells from storms for example.
     The Referee can design rivers with rapids to create realism and
     then define the level of difficulty for navigation.  

        I. Fords: Fords are a shallow place in a body of water where a
     person can cross the water by walking or riding an animal.  A
     Referee can assign fords in certain rivers to create realism.

        J. Bridges: Bridges are an important aspect in a water world.
     Bridges are natural (trees, logs), man made or temporary.  Man
     made bridges can be expensive on the width and type of materials.
     Metal and wood can change the cost and time for bridge construction.
     A temporary bridge can be setup using ships like barges to cross
     a river in times of war or emergency situations.  These are floating
     platforms which can let people and material cross quickly.
           Some nations may require tolls to be paid on crossing a bridge.
     This will depend on the nation and the bridge.  A typical price might
     be 5 BB to 1 CC as a toll depending on how often the bridge is used
     by people.  Some bridges may have guards as well to prevent people
     from crossing them.  

        K. Ferry: Where bridges can't be built or affordable a nation
     may use a ferry system.  These are generally rafts or boats that
     allow people and material to cross a river. Some ferry operators
     may be controlled by the nation or by private citizens.  Tolls may
     be required to be paid to cross.  There would be weight and space
     limits for the ferry service. Tolls may be a standard rate or paid
     per number of feet that need to be crossed (if a ferry has to
     go upstream or downstream).   As a guideline a Referee could use
     the following table as a price chart:
           Toll Price   Distance     Notes
             1 BB     Per 50 feet  Per person (under 200 pounds)
            +1 BB     Per 50 feet  Per person (per 20 pounds over 200)
             3 BB     Per 50 feet  Per horse
             5 BB     Per 50 feet  Per vehicle (wagon, etc.)
            +1 BB     Per 50 feet  Per 30 pounds of equipment
           For example a knight and squire needs to cross a river 350 feet
     across.  Both have horses and have gear under 30 pounds.  The ferry
     requires a toll of 2 CC for both to cross.  A ferryman can charge
     more or less based on station.  

        Finally some notes should be discussed on each of the oceans
     of the Perilous Lands.  The Northern Sea is quite a dangerous sea
     full of cold and storms almost year round.  Most ships tend to
     avoid this sea.  The Eastern Sea and Endless Ocean are areas of
     vast distances that ships can easily be lost in.  These lead to
     lands unexplored or unknown to many nations including the Eastern
     Lands.  The Southern Sea is more populated by ships than the
     Northern Sea.  It tends to be warmer but has many storms still.
     The Sea of Tears is isolated by land that surround it.  It may
     not see large storms like Hurricanes but do see fierce storms.
     A Referee should giver personality to each region to add realism to
     the game.

   * Ship Cargo

        Nations can't last long without trade to help its economy.
     Sea Trade is a major aspect of many nations in the Perilous Lands.
     If you are creating a merchant that deals in sea trade it may be
     a good idea to find my file on Culture Economics.  This was posted
     to the list and can be requested.  Its a chart of all nations and
     what they trade in.  This tells at a quick glance what is good to
     buy and sell.
        From my study here are some interesting facts on cargo that may
     help you in your setup.

        1. Typical grain cargo is 370 tons in average.  This is for the
     standard merchant ship on average.
        2. Typical Wine Cargo is 2,000 to 3,000 jars of 30-35 liters each
     of ordinary size.
        3. A common freighter cargo tonnage was 90-165 tons.
        4. The biggest cargo freighters was the Syracuse which could hold
     1,940 tons of cargo.  The other ancient equivalent was the Isis
     which was 180' in length, 45' beam and 43.5 feet tall.  The Isis
     couldcarry 1,500-3,500 tons of cargo.
        5. The Amphora - This was the multi-purpose containers of the
     ancient world.  They typically carried 14-25 liters each.

        It was common for ships to carry multiple cargo loads.  Ships
     typically went to more than one port to sell and buy goods.
        Many nations setup Sea Treaties for trade.  These pacts and
      agreements were loose and strict at times.  They allowed free trade
      or disallowed some trade.  The Perilous Lands would have many such
      treaties setup by Merchant Houses around the globe.  The Referee
      will have to determine the local specifics of such pacts.

   * Ship Crews

        Without a skilled labor pool ships would be useless to maintain.
     Skilled officers and oarsmen are often sought out for good ships
     and high pay.  Based on the study of the ancient world the following
     facts and information was found.
        A. Crew typical Positions -
           1. Commanding Officer aka "Steerer" - He often served as a
     captain but also seconded as a steersmen if no other position was
     on the ship.
           2. Bow Officer aka "orderer" - This crewmen kept the beat going
     for rowers if the ship had oarsmen.  Some might keep the stroke going
     by a drum or by going up and down the row shouting or singing.  Also
     sometimes called the Rowing Officer. The rowing officer was also
     known as a boatswain.  Bow Officers were also known as pursers.  
           3. Prow-man: This position was typically held by any deck hand.
     But some large ships had nothing but prow-men.  These men would watch
     out for dangers day and night.  Some might even be in crow's nest
     and watching for land or other ships.
           4. Piper/whistler: This person, sometimes a deck hand, would
     use a pipe or whistle to issue commands to the crew quickly. For
     rowers he would typically stand middle of gangplank between rowers
     to issue rowing commands or keep the beat.
           5. Navigator: Some ships have dedicated navigators that plot
     long courses or know the area well enough to guide the ship.
           6. Helmsman: This was typically the person who used the ship's
     wheel to steer the ship or helped with the steering oars.
           7. Cargomaster: Some large merchants would have a dedicated
     person to handle cargo and all the accounting services for the ship.
           8. Healer: A healer was sometimes needed for long trips.  These
     healers were skilled in sea going diseases and conditions.
           9. Deck hands: The general laborer of a ship.  Most did not take
     much training beyond a quick set of lessons.  Deck hands would
     typically serve many functions like stewards among others.
          10. Stewards: Some dedicated pleasure ships had people to serve
     food and drink to passengers.  These stewards may also clean up the
     rooms and keep the passengers happy.
          11. Marines/Soldiers: Warriors who were either trained specially
     for water based combat, boarding actions or land combat.  Some would
     also include Archers.
          12. Oarsmen: Oaremen were typically trained fast.  They were
     the backbone to warships as they did alot of work in battle compared
     to other crewmen.
          13. Shipwright:  Many ships had shipwrights or carpenters to
     repair things from oars to the hull during a typical trip. 

        B. Sailors typically stayed naked due to the job, lack of supplies
     and general hard life aboard a ship until they reached land.  This
     was a common situation in the ancient world.
        C. Sea captains also known as Trierarch.
        D. Deck Soldiers typically found on a ship numbered 10 soldiers
     and 4 archers on average.  These warriors were age 20-30 typically.
        E. Archers commonly served as personal bodyguards to commanding
        F. Oarsmen typically offered half the normal sailor pay if not
     on a active service schedule.  Most oarsmen were found in towns
     along the way.  Most tended to buy their own provisions but had a
     virtual allowance.
        G. Supplies for crews were typically from public stores (on a loan
     basis) or paid for by the captain's own money.
        H. At least 10% of all sailors may be armed at any one time. 
        I. Climan Ships: A typical ship has 80 on it.  The priestess and
     captain are character class.  The others tend to be slaves. 
        J. Pilot: A pilot was hired typically to steer a ship to shore in
     a area the captain did not know.  this is to avoid dangers like reefs.
        K. Trireme: Triremes typically had 200 men with 170 just being
     oarsmen (1 per oar).  The others were officers, deck hands and guards.
        L. Rowers rarely fight and are not combat trained. 

        M. Typical Ship Crews:
           Ship Type       Small          Medium        Large      Average
         [Random Size D10]  1-6             7-9           10
         Fishing Boats   1-6  (1D6)     2-12 (2D6)    3-18 (3D6)      9
         Merchant        2-12 (2D6)     7-17 (2D6+5)  8-23 (3D6+5)  14-15 
         Pirate             20             40            100         60
         Climan             50            100            350        200
         Military -
           General          40            100            300        170
           Light Warship    50             75            100         75
           Medium Warship  100            125            150        125
           Trireme         250            300            350        300
           Quadreme        400            450            500        450
         Logboat            1              1              2           1
         Barge           1-6 (1D6)      6-11 (1D6+5)  7-23 (2D6+5)   12
         Patrol Barges   1-10 (1D10)    7-17 (2D6+5)  8-23 (3D6+5)   12
         Cargo Barge     1-6 (1D6)      5-10 (1D6+4)  2-20 (2D10)    10
         Animal Barge    1-6 (1D6)      7-12 (1D6+6)  2-20 (2D10)    10
         Canoe              1              1              2           1
         Catamaran       1-3 (1D3)      2-4 (1D3+1)   2-6 (2D3)       3
         Coracle            1              1              2           1
         Cutter          1-3 (1D3)      4-7 (1D3+3)   3-8 (1D6+2)     4
         Dhow            2-12 (2D6)   3-21 (2D10+1) 21-30 (1D10+20)  16
         Dinghy             1              2              3           2
         Dory               2              3              4           3
         Ferry           1-3 (1D3)      3-8 (1D6+2)   2-12 (2D6)      6
         Junks -
           General Junk    20             50            100          60
           Treasure        10             30             80          45
           Horse Ship       5             25             50          25
           Supply Ship     10             30             60          35
           Troop Ship      10             25             50          30
           Patrol Ship     10             25             50          30
         Kayak              1              1              2           1
         Ketch            1-2 (1D2)     4-6 (1D3+3)    5-10 (1D6+4)   5
         Lifeboat           1              1              2           1
         Rafts            1-2 (1D2)     2-5 (1D3+2)    5-10 (1D6+4)   5
         Tugs             1-6 (1D6)     6-16 (2D6+4)   4-24 (4D6)    12 
         Galley            30             45             60          45
         Brig               1              2              3           2

        N. Crew Breakdown: The actual disposition of each crewmen depends
     on the ship and how much the captain can afford.    But one could use
     the following chart as a quick guide. 

           Ship Type    Rowers    Deck hands   Officers   Warriors (Rowed)
         Fishing Boats    -           98%         2%          -      No
         Fishing Boats   10%          88%         2%          -      Yes
         Merchant         -           96%         3%         1%*     No
         Merchant        10%          85%         4%         1%*     Yes
         Pirate           -           10%         3%        87%      No
         Pirate          15%          10%         4%        71%      Yes
         Climan           -           80%         5%        15%      No
         Climan          19%          60%         6%        15%      Yes
         Military -
           General        -           15%         5%        80%      No
           General       40%          15%         5%        40%      Yes
           Light Warship  -           64%         6%        30%      No
           Light Warship 50%          14%         6%        30%      Yes
           Medium Size    -           72%         8%        20%      No
           Medium Size   60%          12%         8%        20%      Yes
           Trireme       85%           5%        10%        15%**    Yes
         Barge            -           98%         1%         1%*     No
         Barge           10%          88%         1%         1%*     Yes

            * If ship chooses to have soldiers (if not add to deckhand).
           ** Trireme includes 30 soldiers typically beyond normal 200

           Other ships will have to be up to the Referee or player to
     determine.  All figures are rounded up to the nearest whole number.
     Some warriors serve as dual purpose positions which may do deck hand
     duties.  Some ships may have more rowers in some cases so they would
     take higher percentages than others.  

        O. Crew Training:  The ancient world needed skill and unskilled
     crews for successful operations.  The following can be used.  It
     is based on ancient world records (with slight math adjustments)   

                              Civilian                Military
                        Small  Medium  Large     Small  Medium  Large
        COs/Captains      30      90    180       180     200    240
        Rowing Officer     7      10     12        14      14     14
        Prow Officer       2       2      2         3       3      3
        Piper/Whistler    14      14     14        21      21     21
        Navigator         90      90     90       180     180    180
        Helmsman          14      14     14        30      30     30
        Carpenter        120     120    120        90      90     90
        Shipwright       240     240    240       300     300    300
        Healer           360     360    360       540     540    540
        Deck Hand          2       3      4         3       4      5
        Stewards           1       2      3         1       -      -
        Marines            -       -      -       180     180    180
        Archer            60      60     60        90      90     90
        Soldiers          30      30     30       240     240    240
        Oarsmen           42      42     42        63      63     63
        Cargomaster        3       5     10         5       -      -
        Pilot             63      63     63        63      63     63

        All figures are in Days.  If a person is already trained in the
     above skills the time is decreased by 50%.  But if he does not have
     ship experience (being on a moving/swaying ship) its only 30%.  

        Captains had to learn many details including sailing, navigation,
     helmsman, cargo, trade and warfare.  The military would put a captain
     through a long 8 month course usually with 2 months of trials and
     testing.  The size of the ship decreased difficulty in tactics and
     learning time.  Civilian captains tended to be taught by other captains
     or by their own.  Typically only 6 months for a large ship and only
     a month for a small ship to learn all its details.  If a captain
     does not become jack of all trades time will decrease.  If he is only
     to issue orders time decreases by 50%.  If he does not have to worry
     about navigation (30%) and helmsman (10% decrease) duties time decreases.
        Rowing Officers were standard and easy to train.  Most had to have
     slight musical ability to keep a beat but even then it was learnable.
     the military put rowing officers in a 2 week course to learn special
     combat and chaos techniques during battle.  Civilians were more
     lenient and only taught a more limited system of orders.
        Prow Officer could be done by anyone with good eyes.  However,
     the military trained them in more ship recognition details so they
     could detect enemy ships faster.  Civilians would do the same but
     with pirate or hostile force recognition.
        Piper/Whistler officers needed some musical talent as they also
     were common to play for the men songs to entertain.  The military
     would spend an extra week to teach orders and signals in codes to
     be done in battle and other situations.
        Navigators need intense training.  The military would teach
     as much as they could to their navigators including navigation
     during battles and best way to handle fleet movements.  Civilian
     navigators learned the basics of chart and star navigation.
     For civilians who only needed to learn local navigation (say a
     single river or local coastal region) the time to learn was 50%.
        Helmsman duties were simple to learn.  Civilians would teach
     helmsman to handle ships in storms and in dangerous hazards.  But
     the military spent a month to teach combat helmsman tactics.
        Carpenters were taught one major thing from the military.  That
     of fixing combat damage to the hull.  the time was lengthy since
     they had to be taught in storms, rough seas and combat like
     conditions.  Civilians however had to be jack of all trades in
     learning to repair everything on a ship.  They learned through
     an apprentice program with other masters.
        Shipwrights were taught the science of ship building.  The military
     taught how to build fast or sturdy ships so took almost a year.
     This included math, engineering and carpentry.  They specialized in
     building warships.  Civilian shipwrights learned through an apprentice
     program from masters.  They were typically specialized in one type
     of ship (like fishing boats or medium merchants).
        Healers need to be trained in the area of water based diseases and
     cures.  the military train healers to perform specialized combat
     techniques to cut and heal fast.  Military healers tend to be only
     short term so not on many ships long.  Civilian healers are taught
     for almost a year to learn all the water based problems and cures.
        Deck hands require the least amount of true training.  The
     military taught special deck operations like raising/lowering rigging
     during combat.  Civilian deck hands learned more stuff but in less
     critical time frames.
        Stewards were typically not found on military ships other than
     as a ceremonial (maybe royal ship).  They required little training
     aside from the bigger the ship more to learn at times.
        Marines were rarely part of civilian ships.  Military ships took
     about 6 months to train them.  This included fighting in rough
     seas, boarding actions and storms.  They were more highly trained
     than the typical soldier.
        Archers took time to learn to fire from a moving and swaying
     ship.  Archers took an extra month to fight in combat situations.
     While civilian archers were taught typically to defend ships only.
        Soldiers were guards on civilian ships to protect the ship and
     crew.  While military soldiers were taught to fight, board and
     defend on a swaying and moving ship.  These were typically men
     who did better though on land rather than sea.
        Oarsmen were trained differently for civilian and military ships.
     For civilian they only had to be trained to work as a team and
     keep steady operations.  But for the military they had to be trained
     to take fast orders and work in combat situations.  A quick course
     for a oarsmen only took 9 days to learn if needed.  But to get all
     the true skills it took 6 weeks to learn everything.  By then oarsmen
     were in demand based on this training.  This was the typical Trireme
     Greek training program.  
        Cargomasters were taught math and accounting mainly.  But they
     were taught how to trade with other ships and nations.  Some were
     taught in languages as well.  Military did not have space for cargo
     but if they did they were taught how to deal (cower) in combat
     situations.  Civilian versions had to deal more with space efficiency.
     They were responsible at times with the cargo and any damages.
        Pilots typically took a little over 2 months to learn the basic
     rules on navigating and steering all types of ships from civilian
     to military ships of all sizes.  They were specialized pilots who
     learned only the local rivers and harbor.

        P. Crew Pay: For details on pay consult the Gear and Equipment
     file for the Hirelings Section.  Keep in mind that slave deck hands,
     rowers and fishermen aren't paid.  The chart only details trained
     and paid crew.  Some nations MAY pay their slaves but at a 30-50%
     pay reduction typically.

   * New Skills 

        The following detail new skills that may be employed in the world
     of ships. 

        A. Skill Chart [Old and New in no particular order]

             Skill Type      Cost to Buy     Next Level     Max Formula
           Boatmen               40              9      (S+A)+(StBx5) or 80
           Watercraft            25              5         (S+St+A)/2 or 80
           Waterway Survival     20             15          I+EM/10+StB
           Ocean Survival        20             15          I+EM/10+StB
           Carrying              10              2           S+St/2
           Climbing              25            NEL SQ.       S+A/2+StB
           Healer               120             20           I+Em/10
           Navigation            80             12       (I+W/2)+Em or 80
           Seaman                25              5         S+St+A/2 or 80
           Carpenter             10              5      (W+D)+StBx5 or 80
          *Shipwright           150              8       (I+W+Em)/2 or 80
          *Rivermanship          10              5    (S+A)+(StBx5) or 80
          *Cartography          100            NELx11     (I + W + Em)/15
          *Signaler              10              5        (I + W + Em)/15
          *Earth Works          120             10       (I+W+Em)/2 or 80
          *Cargomaster           40              5       (I+W+EM)/2 or 80
          *Ferryman              10              3       (I+W+EM)/2 or 80
          *Fishing               60            NEL SQ.     (S+W+D+A)/20 
          *Naval Tactics         75            NELx10        (I + W)/10
          *Naval History         50              7           (I + W)/10
          *Leadership            90            NELx6       (I+W+E+EM)/20
          *Water Creatures       85              2           (I + W)/10
          *Ship Operations       30              3           (I + W)/10
          *Rowing                20              2          (S+St+W)/15
          *Naval Weapons         50            NELx6         (I + W)/10
          *Weather Forecasting   70            NEL SQ.       (I + W)/10
          *Watercraft            10              2           (I + W)/10

           * [NEW Skills]

        B. Skill Descriptions

           1. Boatmen:  This skill is divided into two types. Either the
     character is skilled in lakes and open waterways or he is skilled
     in Swamps. The advantages that the character will gain varies
     depending on the environment that the player chooses, In both
     environments, the character can judge currents and distances
     traveled by water, with a successful roll against his EL, and has
     a memory for landmarks and watercourses similar to the Thief's
     memory of maps and passages. Success in both cases equals 100%
     accuracy, partial success is 75% accuracy and failure is 50%
              The other advantages of this skill are:
              Open Waterway Boatman
              1. Knowledge of creatures that can be encountered in
              2. Waterway Survival, maximum EL currently possible.
              3. Starting EL with War Staff.
              4. 40% chance of maximum EL currently possible with the

              Swamp Boatman
              1. Maximum EL currently possible in Swamp Survival.
              2. Knowledge of creatures that can be encountered in the
              3. Starting EL with the Bow.
              4. 40% chance of maximum EL currently possible with War Staff.

           2. Watercraft: The character is trained to perform tasks common
     in operating small boats. He may fight from these boats without
     reduction of his OCV or DCV. (Those without this skill reduce both
     values and their weapon EL by 50% when fighting from a small boat.)
              Skilled watermen may navigate on inland waterways, handle
     swift currents and avoid water obstacles in inland waterways and
     lakes. They may use their Watercraft EL at 1/2 value when sailing
     in the open sea, i.e. operating as Seamen. (The same applies for
     Seamen when they sail on inland waterways and lakes.)
              Finally, watermen will have some training in maintaining and
     repairing small vessels. Their success chance doing either is equal
     to their EL.

           3. Waterway Survival: The basic survival skill operating on
     waterways and lakes. Use it as specified for all other Survival

           4. Ocean Survival: Survival skill that applies for Ocean
     environments, sea voyages and other like areas. Its full usefulness
     awaits the introduction of Sea Encounter rules. Where a character
     is a Navigator or Seaman, he should have the maximum EL currently
     possible in this skill without additional cost (as part of buying
     either or both of those skills).

           5. Carrying: Same as for the Book 1 Skill.  But for Sailors
     this is good for Deck Hands to learn for carrying cargo from place
     to place and heavy ship loads like the rigging.

           6. Climbing: Same as for Book 1 skill.  For sailors this is
     good to learn for climbing the rigging while the ship is in rough
     seas or a storm.

           7. Healer: Same as for book 1 skill.  However, ship's healers
     learn more about the diseases and issues around water.  They also
     learn about plant life found in water that is used in healing herbs.

           8. Navigation: Same as for Book 1.  The Skill can be used for
     specialized training for waterway (river, lakes, etc.) and ocean

           9. Seaman: As for the Book 1 skill.  it is critical for any
      sailor to learn.

          10. Carpenter: As for the new Skill by Richard.  Ships need
      a good carpenter for large ships to fix broken items & hull breaches.

          11. Shipwright [NEW]:  Shipwrights must specify whether they are
      Military or Civilian Shipwrights.  This skill allows the person to
      design and build ships.  Shipwrights for the military can design
      warships.  Shipwrights can detect structure weak points of many ships.
      The cost to learn the other specialty, once the first is known, is
      75 expertise points. The starting EL in the second field may not
      exceed the Current EL in the first specialty.  The Referee can require
      Scholar skills in Math and Engineering to help before learning this
      skill.  Shipwrights can build custom ships and boats but tend to
      work on a set of standard designs for the region.  A shipwright should
      make on success roll per week of ship construction.  If it fails there
      are problems (breaks in hull, bad wood, etc.).  He will have to
      start that week over to redo that area.  Partial success means the
      ship can be quickly fixed (1D3 days) without redoing the entire week.

          12. Rivermanship [NEW]: For All intents this is the same skill
      as the Boatmen skill.  But this skill gives more information to
      work with.  The person that learns this skill learns it for one
      waterway (a lake or a river).  This skill requires you learn the
      Boatmen skill first.  Then you can learn this skill afterwards at
      the listed reduced cost.  It gives the person precise information
      on a river.  It includes history of the river (details on recent
      floods, water levels, etc.).  The person has a working knowledge of
      river currents and water flow.  It gives the person advantage in
      knowing good fishing spots where the fish frequent and where to
      avoid the dangerous creatures.  People with this skill may be hired
      by Farmers to learn where a river tends to flood and irrigation.

          13. Cartography [NEW]: This skill is a subset of the Scholar
      skill.  It tends to be only taught in schools.  But some apprentice
      programs may teach it.  It is the skill in making maps of all
      kinds.  The Referee can require a form of Math skill to be learned
      first.  The person learns this skill and draw the maps with good
      precision.  It will take 20-EL days to draw the map.  This map
      will have the basic land or sea areas (islands, landmasses).  It
      will take 1 day to add River Current details and 1 more day to
      add dangers like Reefs & Sandbars to the map.  If the above
      figure is less than 0 then it will only take 1 day.  A mapmaker
      may add style and art to his maps at more cost.  This skill is
      good for sailors but is useful for land map making as well.
      Success means the map is in perfect detail.  Partial means the
      scale may be off slightly (up to the Referee or by D100%).  Failure
      means the map is off completely (off by 80+D100%).  The range of
      these maps tends to be EL Miles.  Making maps larger will require
      more knowledge of the area and a success roll per 50 mile increment.
      A mapmaker will have to have accurate map data to work with.  If
      he does not the map will be wrong right away.  A mapmaker who
      does a survey of the actual terrain will increase his chance of
      success.  A survey will take 1 day per 20 miles needing to map.
      A mapmaker will have to buy his own equipment to make the maps.

          14. Signaler [NEW]: This skill is specified for either Civilian
      or the Military.  It allows the person to use signals of all kinds
      to communicate.  Techniques include smoke, light, sun signals, flags
      or hand signals to name a few.  The person who learns it for the
      military may learn specific codes and secret signals for fleet and
      war operations.  For the Civilian Signaler he knows civilian trade
      and communication signals.  The Signaler can send and understand
      seen signals if he knows the signal being used.  Success means he
      can understand or send the correct signal needed.  Partial means
      the signal is not understood fully and may be taken wrongly.  Failure
      means the opposite signal is sent.  The Referee may restrict the
      type of signal to a region or area.  The player should determine the
      exact type of signals he wishes to use and learn.

          15. Earth Works [NEW]: This skill is knowledge in how to move
      earth.  Specifically it allows a person to build structures like
      dams, land walls, trenches, tunnels, canals and generally move
      earth around in the best way.  For this section Earth Works are good
      for Dams and Canals for those who wish to help ships or hinder ships.
      Harbors hire people with this skill to build drydocks and place docks
      in the best location.  Also they hire them to move sandbars from
      place to place if its shallow enough.

          16. Cargomaster [NEW]: This skill is like the Merchant skill.
      It allows the person to know the business of cargo and freight.  It
      works for ships and for land operations.  The person with this skill
      knows how to buy, sell and handle cargo of all types.  They handle
      the book keeping and the loading/unloading of cargo (by supervision).
      They learn the most efficient ways of placing cargoes in warehouses
      and ship holds.  Merchant houses tend to hire people with this
      skill for large merchant fleets.   

          17. Ferryman [NEW]: This skill is like Boatmen but more
      specialized.  The person that learns this skill knows how to ferry
      people on rafts and boats.  They learn the local water currents of
      the waters.  They know how many people, animals or equipment that
      can be handled by the boats/rafts.  Ferrymen may also know the
      quickest ways to ferry people in adverse weather.  Ferrymen may
      also know of local fords and natural areas to cross the water if
      no boat or raft is handy.  

          18. Fishing [NEW]: This skill serves many purposes.  First the
      person learns the basic techniques and tricks of fishing.  Where
      to fish, how to fish, what bait to use and what not to do in water.
      In a larger sense like commercial fishing operations it allows the
      person to know the best water areas to fish, how to catch large
      amount of fish and then use handle the fish after the catch.  

          19. Naval Tactics [NEW]: This skill is mainly for military
      captains who need to learn strategy and tactics in naval warfare.
      It includes fleet operations, shipboard weapons and ship combat.
      This skill is learned mainly through class work and books with some
      field exercises.  Success means the captain can determine the best
      tactic to use.  Partial means he may get the right tactic but
      too late or with some slight drawback.  Failure means the wrong
      tactic is determined.  Civilians who learn this skill tend to be
      Pirates who learn through other pirates on how to raid ships.

          20. Naval History [NEW]: This skill is learned for a region.
      If the person wishes to learn it for the entire history of all
      nations it will cost 4 times the listed cost.  This person learns
      the history of ship construction, ship types and ship evolution.
      They also learn history of naval warfare and famous battles.
      This is mainly useful for Military sea captains who wish to learn
      the enemy to be useful in warfare.

          21. Leadership [NEW]: This skill is useful for commanding men
      and women in all parts of society.  Sea captains learn this skill
      to lead men into battle or inspire rowers to do more work.  The
      Rhetoric skill should be learned first.  Success means the leadership
      inspires the men.  The Referee could add some bonus (like better
      combat, speed increases, etc.).  Partial means the leadership is
      done well but with less degree.  Failure means those lead do not
      believe or lose faith in the leader (a decrease in ability).

          22. Water Creatures [NEW]: This is almost like the modern
      oceanography skill.  It may give some basic information on the
      sea and its aspects.  But it mainly gives information on creatures
      that are found in the water.  How to handle, hunt and avoid them.

          23. Ship Operations [NEW]: This skill allows the person to learn
      all aspects of ship based operations.  Everything from rigging,
      sails, bilge, ballast to moving, eating and sleeping on ship among
      other things.  Deck hands tend to know this skill while other Sailors
      tend to know Seaman.  Skill includes also how to clean a ship,
      land/beach a ship.  It also includes training in how to deal with
      rough seas and storms.

          24. Rowing [NEW]: Oarsmen are taught this skill.  While anyone
      can row quickly its important for Rowers to work as a team.  This
      skill teaches that. It also teaches rowers how to quickly maneuver
      ships for ramming or speed shifts.  

          25. Naval Weapons [NEW]: This skill teaches the person how to
      use ship based weapons.  While most can fire weapons right away
      with little training this skill does not give the person any
      disadvantages to firing while the ship moves.  Those without this
      skill will suffer a penalty if the ship is shifting about.  This
      skill teaches trajectory aspects.  The Referee can allow this skill
      to build and repair naval weapons.

          26. Weather Forecasting [NEW]: This skill allows a person to
      learn to read the sky.  From this reading he can gleam a simple
      forecast of the weather up to EL/2 (RU) hours in advance.  Success
      means he forecast correctly.  Partial means the time and data may
      be off.  Failure means the opposite is predicted.  This skill is
      also useful in reading animals (birds, etc.) and clouds in terms
      of stories that sailors pass each other.  Like some moons  and
      sunsets can determine future storms.  The Referee can determine
      if a person gets a bonus in avoiding storms.  

          27. Watercraft [NEW]: This skill gives specific knowledge on
      a specific type of boat or ship.  the person knows how to use,
      maintain, build (optional) and repair this type of ship.  If other
      skills do not apply this skill may be useful to learn for civilians.
      A person can learn another type (if the same kind) at 50% cost
      if this is learned first.  For example a Ferrymen learns Watercraft
      for Rafts.  He could learn bladder boats at 50%.  But he would have
      to pay full cost to learn rowing or sailing ships.  The Referee
      will have to determine this effects of this rule.

        C. Other Skill notes

           1. Diving: An advanced form of Swimming.  This optional skill
      allows a person to dive by holding one's breath for EL/3 Minutes.
           2. Stewards and Deck Hands may need to learn Servant
           3. Smugglers may need to learn the Smuggler skill
           4. Pilots may need to learn Rivermanship for the river they
      are on.

   * New Guilds

        Various professions have professional organizations and guilds
     that may restrict membership.  The following section details some
     of the more popular, secretive and biggest in the Perilous Lands.

        A. Wharf Rats:  This group started as small groups in smaller
     cities.  But as time grew and more joined they got larger.  Soon
     they expanded into other nations.  no one knows where this group
     first started from exactly.  It is a group for all warehouse and
     dock workers.  They have influence in many cities with local
     merchants who try to abuse the workers.  The group is populated
     by men who tend not to be in normal society circles.  Most city
     folk would avoid these folks if found on the same street.  This
     group can be found in any major port with decent warehouse districts.
     Most groups charge a hefty fee to join (usually half a months'
     pay) to join.  With monthly dues which are cheaper.  

           1. Variant Group: Some cities and towns have a criminal
     version of this group which deals in smuggling, thief of cargo,
     bully tactics on ships and merchants, extortion and murder.  the
     main group tends to work within the law but this sub group does
     not.  Some of these groups exist in Clima, Porta, Port Doman,
     Lemasa and Katai are the largest ones.  To join most have to
     be invited in and perform a specialized task.  

        B. Fishermen Groups: These groups go by many names.  They are
     a collection of fishing companies and workers.  Some groups may
     only allow workers while others include companies (usually family
     owned rather than merchant owned).  These groups support each other
     in the fishing industry.  They share information and fishing tips
     on the best locations to group members.  This is more a support
     group of families and single members.  It includes single fishing
     people on docks, ship fishing men and those who clean and stock
     fish on land.   Fees are cheap to join and tend to be affordable
     for any dues that are required.  These groups tend to have little
     influence with local politics.  But as a mass group if the fishing
     industry were to boycott or close down it can hurt and thus influence
     the merchants and local government.  The largest groups are in the
     nations of Vahear, Ticasi, Bhamotin and Clima.

        C. Sailor/Semen Societies: These societies are the largest groups
     for water working people.  They are numerous and popular.  Some
     are as small as a half dozen people in a local tavern to as large
     as thousands in a city.  These groups are support, entertainment and
     a formal organization for sailors.  Anyone who sails the high seas
     professionally is welcome in these groups.  Most tend to be social
     groups where sailors get together and share stories.  Captains use
     them to hire the best crews.  Military officers use them to hire
     the best combat sailors.  It is a good information sharing (though
     usually at some cost) network across the globe.  These groups tend
     to be different from pirate groups as they can include entire
     families of sailors in social occasions.  Most groups aren't as
     formal and organized as others so some may not even charge dues.
     These groups have very little true influence other than on staffing
     good sailors for ship crews.

        D. Divers:  This is a single exclusive group in Lemasa.  The
     divers there dive for pearls and other rare plants that are only
     found in this area of the globe.  Membership requires that a diver
     can hold his breath for at least 3.5 minutes.  Some members have
     been known to dive for 5 minutes.  If your not a diver of this
     strength then your not welcome.  This group tends to be a social
     group with influence with merchants.  Merchants know they are
     needed so work with this group for fair prices and wages.  The
     group is called Blue Divers for the blue waters found in the western
     edge of the island.  Dues are not paid but a diver must prove his
     worth to the group to join.  This group tends to kick out, even
     to the point of brutal attacks, others they do not welcome.  This
     makes the divers exclusive for the area and market.  

        E. Shipwrights:  Shipbuilders have their own Guilds.  This is
     a formal organization in any major ports (Class A and B).  Some
     groups may be in smaller ports with less influence and membership.
     This group is for shipwrights mainly.  Some groups may allow
     other workers (carpenters, blacksmiths, etc.) but are rare exceptions.
     These groups are a social professional group that tend to have
     most shipwright masters.  These groups allow apprentices in but
     the formal group works in a level system of power and influence.
     With the Shipwright Masters being the top rank and other works like
     carpenters being the lowest just below the shipwright apprentices.
     It is a group most wish to join to become a shipwright.  It is
     a good way to study under and meet the best.  The biggest group
     is found in Fomoria named The Hammer Group with over 3,000 members
     all over Fomoria island. Dues tend to be steep for membership with
     moderate monthly dues.  This is to restrict membership to those
     who deserve and can afford it.  However, a Shipwright Master can
     allow an apprentice to join once a year.  During that year the
     apprentice must complete at least one ship building task with little
     or no supervision.  Most apprentice tend to work under masters for
     up to 3 years before they are ready to complete such a task.
           These groups have heavy influence with local port government
     and merchants.  This group can dictate the number of ships that
     can be made.  Thus control the prices, workers and materials
     that are required.  Most shipwrights who do not join these groups
     tend to be unwelcome around others.  They are not bothered in
     their work but may be quietly run out of business through subtle
     influences.  These groups tend to work with other groups like
     the merchant and Wharf Rats for material inventory.

           1. Variant: The Military Shipwright guilds are the same but
     tend to be more exclusive with only allowing shipwrights who know
     how to create warships.  Government prefers this so as to keep
     trade secrets and construction data more secret to outsiders.
     The military groups tend to be the first to be hired for fleet
     construction rather than freelancers.

        F. Sailor's Edge: This society first started in Ticasi as a formal
     group but died shortly after.  It was later re-formed in Marentia.
     It is now spread to many ports across the globe.  This group is
     for Navigators, Helmsmen and Ship Weapons Officers.  It is a loose
     group for the education on the future of the new techniques and
     technologies that may come about.  Many groups give talks on new
     devices that help these professionals.  The talks on ship weapons
     are especially popular.  Governments even have to restrict such
     talks due to trade secrets that may be give out.  One of the
     most popular groups is the Silver Globe Group found in Caldo.
     They may not discuss new tricks but they talk frequently of past
     battles with giants and give public demonstrations and parades.
     Membership dues are affordable for entrance and monthly dues. 

           1. Variant: Military subgroups of this group are highly
     restrictive for membership.  They do not share a lot of new
     information especially in the areas of ship weapons.

        G. Map Makers of the World: This Society is a formal group
     found in many cities (in-land and coastal).  It is made up of
     only map makers.  Each group tries to share information with
     other groups to improve on maps and mistakes found in maps.
     This creates yearly updates on maps that are later created for
     the public.  Ticasi has been trying for the last few decades
     to try to get all the groups to work together to make better
     world maps but has failed due to egos and various cultural
     differences.  This society approves maps for publication to
     be official.  If a map maker is not a part of this society and
     does a map on his own he may find problem selling maps in a
     mass market.  Yearly conventions that move to a different city
     each time discuss new maps, map making techniques and other
     topics relating to maps.  From this convention some of the best
     maps in the world are created for the public.  Membership fees
     tend to be at least 3 GC to enter and 4 SC per month.  This
     includes journals that may be sent to members for new events.
     To join though a person must have created a map and then been
     approved by the society through a sponsor.  

           1. Pirate Variant: Pirates are famous for making maps.  Some
     are rich enough to contract Map Makers to make treasure maps.
     But most map makers tend to have "accidents" afterwards.  Thus
     an underground network of this society was formed.  It allows
     pirates to contract for maps without questions.  A trust is formed
     between the pirate and map maker.  This system seems to work without
     creating "accidents" later for the map makers.  Usually most
     of these underworld map makers are backed by criminal organizations
     that will kill them if they disclose any of the treasure locations.
           2. Military Variant: The Military may contract certain official
     map makers to create maps for secret bases or routes through
     some waterways for faster combat.  These map makers tend to be
     on government payrolls for exclusive work.
           3. [Taolisa] "Scribe's Eyes": This secret society is in Taolisa.
     They were map makers who mapped the secret Eastern Lands.  They only
     have about 20 members and tend not to grow larger than 25.  Only
     the government and some underworld organizations on Taolisa may know
     of this group.  

        H. Earth Works: This Guild comes in many names.  It is found on
     a dozen nations only.  This Guild has members that are skilled in
     moving earth.  This group or its members are hired to create canals,
     dams, earthen walls, ditches, trenches, move mountains, mines,
     dig wells and even create earthern forts out of sheer rock.  The
     bulk of this group comes from members who do general hard labor.
     But the top levels are masters in engineering.  Some groups are
     known to hire Dwarfs for their expertise as members but many do
     not due to prejudice.  Membership entrance and monthly dues
     are cheap and affordable.   But the top masters tend to earn the
     most fees for large jobs.  One such group was in Marentia for
     about 12 years.  It had 12,000 members which were hired to move
     mountains or level them out.  One job created a large mine that
     went down for 600 feet in just a year's time.  But the group
     was disbanded due to Duke Caran's fear the group was growing in
     power.  The group still has members in Marentia but has less
     power.  They are spread out all over the globe in only about
     a dozen nations at this time.  Xan has been trying to hire a
     group to make a large canal but their funds tend to fail in the end.

        I. Harbor Merchants:   This guild called Harbor Merchants is
     found in small to large port cities.  It includes Cargomasters,
     Harbormasters, Portmasters and Merchants.  It is a group that
     works on price controls for cargo and trade.  While a public
     group some governments do not like it since they do not allow
     free trade as best it could be done.  While some merchants may
     not like the price controls it is a good guild for information
     on new markets and trade issues.  Larger Merchant Houses that
     have large merchant fleets tend to have a back hand in these
     groups to help their own interests.  Some merchants who are not
     members hate this group and tend to fight them as best they can.
     Since most members tend to be rich enough membership fees are
     moderate to steep.

        J. Naval Historians Society: This Society was formed in Ticasi
     over 300 years ago.  It is a formal group of scholars who wish
     to learn more about past naval events of importance.  This includes
     battles, major storms, ship technology and evolution.  It tends to
     be restricted to older Scholars but is open to anyone who can afford
     the fees.  The group even publishes journals of their papers they
     work on for public use.  The work of this group is found in
     libraries all over the globe.  Military especially studies the
     group books on battles to learn from them.  Fees are steep since
     most scholars tend to afford them.  The public can afford a
     reduced price but can only get the journals and not participate
     in the lectures and write their own papers.  To become a full
     member rather than an associate member one must write at least
     one peer reviewed paper a year.  The biggest group is found in
     Ticasi but is now found in many cities across the globe.

        K. Pirate Groups: These groups are more social and not formal
     organizations.  These groups are small and tend to be a group
     of pirates in a tavern sharing stories and telling high tales.
     These groups are more gangs that are exclusive for membership.
     Pirate gangs find new crews for their ships from these groups.
     The groups also form a loose information network that shares info
     on booty or goods to be gained.  It is a underworld society most
     do not wish to enter as its a dangerous one.  These largest pirate
     group is found in Dechat city.    It is a ruthless group that
     has major influence in the city and bullies everyone.  Porta
     has criminal gangs that are pirate groups as well.

        L. Sailmakers Guild: This is a subset of the Cloth Makers guild.
     This group is the industry behind making ship sails.  It is small
     group that is used by merchants for materials.  Membership is
     free.  These are found in just about any city.  They have no
     influence on local government or society.  It is a place for those
     families who bring their sons or daughters up in the industry
     to find work as well.

        M. Captain's Bell: This group is named the Captain's Bell after
     the bell found on a ship which is rung by captains for orders. It
     is a social club for captains and first officers only.  Some may
     allow families or guests (other sailors) to visit social functions
     like parties.  The group works together to support each other in
     times of trouble.  It is found in most coastal towns and cities.
     Some of the elite groups are yacht clubs.  One such group became
     famous one year.  That group was found in Aredan.  When pirates
     raids merchant ships and killed captains and crews the club banded
     together and formed convoys.  this group soon drove the pirates
     away for some years.

        N.  Smugglers Guild: This is a offshoot of the Thieve's Guild.
     It is a group of smugglers and their underworld helpers.  It
     includes contacts for fences and authorities that can be bribed.
     Smugglers are contacted to smuggle cargo at high cost through this
     guild.  It is a dangerous Guild where capture can lead to prison
     or death.  Membership is exclusive usually by word of mouth and
     fees are moderate.  The biggest group the Coasa Smuggler's Alliance
     is found in and around Coasa.  These are known to be some of the
     best smugglers.  The Gomese Smugglers are the second best.
     Even the Ghazai are known to be wise smugglers.  Free lance smugglers
     tend not to be tolerated by the guild and can be killed.

        O. Gem Traders Alliance: Four nations formed their own Gem Trade
     guilds (Ashudan, Marentia, Teos and Valheim). About 50 years ago
     it was decided the four groups could join into a major Alliance.
     They have a building in Sivas, Marentia.  While bickering and
     fights may occur the group works together to handle the large
     aspects of the Gem Trade including price control, inventory and
     new mine deployments.  They have major influence with the government
     of their home nations in terms of price controls.  Other nations
     have tried to join the alliance but find they have less influence
     with the four primary members having 80% of any votes.  The
     Merchant Houses in Marentia have been working to try and break
     this voting issue.

           1. Variant: Ashudan has formed a organized soldier force that
     tracks down those who steal large amounts of gems.  This force
     has been known to kill its victims outright.  This has created
     a fear in the area for gem thieves.  This force works as a private
     army for the rich gem trade houses.

        P. Oarsmen Groups: While many oarsmen are slaves some are paid
     professionals.  These form social groups that share stories and
     tell tall tales.  most oarsmen tend to stick together so this
     is a purely social group with no membership or formal organization.
     However, ship captains use these groups to hire the best oarsmen
     for their ships.  They have no influence other than on hiring
     the best and qualified.  

   * Ship Operations

        The life of a sailor may be tedious, long and boring.  But
     all ships tend to have common ship operations.  The following
     detail some of those operations.

        A. Rigging Operations include furling and unfurling sails.  Raisng
     and lowering rigging for battle or storms.  Repairing rigging pieces.
     Repairing cloth of the sails.  This tends to be the sole duty of
     Deck Hands.

        B. Observation: At least 1-3 people at any one time may be in
     constant observation duties.  Some may be in the Crow's Nest or
     in the foredeck or sides.  They will look for fish, land, enemy
     or ally ships, storms and water hazards.  Without such observation
     the ship could fall into danger.

        C. Beaching/Anchorage: At night some ships may anchor in the
     water or land on the beach.  Anchorage only requires lowering
     or raising the anchors.  But beaching takes more delicate work
     by all crew members.

        D. Overland: This event is when a ship is taken overland rather
     than by the water.  Many Triremes have been known to be taken
     overland.  Some ships are taken apart for this purpose or carried
     whole.  Some are carried by hand (taken many people) or pushed
     or pulled by rollers.

        E. Rowing: Without good wind or sails Rowing is required to move
     a ship.  Thus rowing is a common operation.  It requires synchronized
     techniques to keep the ship at a good pace.  Oarsmen take up to
     6 weeks to train for combat rowing operations.  

        F. Storm preparation: All crew members will have to prepare a
     ship for storms.  This includes batten down hatches and tie down
     anything that can move or be damaged by rain or waves.

        G. Fishing: This operation may be done by one crewmen or the
     entire ship (if fishing boat).

        H. Combat Operations: When a ship must go into combat some
     crew may prepare the ship.  Rigging tends to be lowered.  Rowers
     prepare for ramming speed.  Soldiers get ready for boarding action.
     Archers prepare to fire.  

        While this is not all of a ship's operations it is a glimpse into
     some of the most common ones.

   * Credits and Acknowledgements

        I would like to thank several people for helping in this project.
     Thanks to Alexander Fennell for a 7 meg PDF files of Deck Plans.
     These plans were fantasy based deck plans.  The source of this
     material is not known but he sent them to me via the mailing list.
     These plans helped to create notes for the ship deck plans document.
     Hopefully, these plans might give some insight on ship design layout.

        A big thanks for Richard Snider for creating such a excellent game
     system to enjoy for over 20 years.  He also helped in direct support
     and editing of various files in this project.  He helped in special
     ships, monsters and notable pirates to name a few of many files he
     helped with.  The Notable Pirate document is untouched by me.  This
     file on pirates is his and not my material.  

        Thanks for folks on the P&P mailing list who helped and gave tips
     and pointers.  Burton was a good help in this area to give me some
     direction on where to start.  Alex Koponen was a nightly help in ICQ
     to give direct immediate help, edits and suggestions.  It was good
     to toss ideas to him and get fast replies.

        I read 2 books in order to get official expert material on ships.
     The first was "Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World" by Lionel
     Casson.  This book helped in generic terms for ship material.  It
     included info everything from types of ships, history, crews, gear
     and many other topics.  The second book was "The Athenian Trireme:
     The History and Reconstruction of an Ancient Greek Warship" by
     J. S. Morrison.  This book told of teams that rebuilt a actual
     Trireme from a shipwreck site.  It supplied many statistics that
     are printed in this supplement.  These 2 books gave most of the
     facts used in this supplement.

        Finally, in researching this material I spent hours and weeks
     on various websites.  Hundreds of them were good sources of info.
     Too many to list for reference unfournately.  Many websites also
     gave good hints, suggestions and facts used in this supplement.  

   * Contact Information

       I can be found in various areas.

        E-mail:  longshot at cybermax.net
                 longshot at darktech.org
       Website:  http://users.cybermax.net/~longshot
                 http://powersandperils.org [various info/links]
          List:  The Powers and Perils Mailing List [see P&P Website]
          ICQ#:  24436933

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