Mass Combat (revised and expanded)

Burton & Linda Choinski linna at NETCOM.COM
Sun May 3 02:14:09 CEST 1998

NOTE: This is a reprint of my conversions of Brett Slocum's excellent
mass combat system for GURPS.  I was able to get the actual article
online and this do not have to type my fingers into a nub.

I have made some additional changes from my last posting, including
fixes that people suggested. Notes on converting the military force
notes in the Culture book will also be included.

Due to the way GURPS damage is done, their armor is less effective than
P&P armor for normal hits (also, they use hit locations). As such, I have
slightly modified some of the TS numbers Brett used to better fit the P&P
world -- elephants were WAY too big.
     -- Burton

                          Generic Land Battle Rules
                               By Brett Slocum

                          Powers & Perils Conversion
                              By Burton Choinski

This system is not a set of "war game rules" for gaming out a long battle in
full detail. Instead, it gives quick answers to the most important questions
for a roleplaying campaign: Who won? and What happened to the PCs? Costs are
also given for raising and paying military units, for those campaigns in
which the PCs are, or want to become, military leaders.

=== Overview

Each military force contains a number of units, each with a single type of
fighter. For instance, mounted knights and yeoman long bowmen would
be treated as two separate units. Most units should be from 10 to 500 men;
the GM has the last word on what may be a unit.

Each unit has a Troop Strength reflecting its size, type, and quality. A
force's Troop Strength is the sum of its units' Troop Strengths. All units
are recorded on a Force Roster (a blank form is at the end of the article).
Each unit has a designated commander, who may be a PC or NPC. The force has
a force commander, as well.

In a battle, the opposing commanders roll a Quick Contest of their Strategy
skills, modified by Troop Strength and other advantages. The contest
determines who wins the battle and how many casualties were taken.
Meanwhile, each PC's Battle skill and choice of Risk determine his chance of
Survival and Glory.

This procedure lets the GM reduce a long battle to a very few die-rolls.
Again, this is not a wargaming system, but a roleplaying aid.

=== Mass Combat Turn Sequence

The system has seven steps for each battle (or for each day of an extended

     1. Determine each military force's makeup by unit. Determine each
     unit's Troop Strength. Total the units' TS for the force's TS.

     2. If special abilities (magic, psionics, superpowers, etc.) are
     being used, determine each military force's Extraordinary
     Strength. Allocate ES points to the special effects in both
     offense and defense. Resolve special effects.

     3. Roll for Catastrophe for each force.

     4. Determine each PC's Battle skill and Risk factor, then roll for
     Survival and Glory.

     5. Modify commanders' Strategy skills by:

          a. Catastrophe, if any.
          b. Relative Troop Strength.
          c. Defensive position.
          d. Special unit superiority.
          e. Glory (or death) of unit leaders.
          f. Special circumstances.
          g. GM's appraisal of the two commanders' battle plans.
          h. Use of magic, assassins and diviners.

     6. Quick Contest of effective Strategy skills

     7. Each PC on the losing side makes a second Survival roll.

     8. Determine casualties for each army (and, if it matters, for
     each unit).

=== The Armies

The first step in fighting a battle is determining the composition of the
opposing armies. Throughout history and literature, many types of military
organization have been developed, some more "organized" than others. In
general, there are three main classes of military organization (listed in
order from most to least organized): ancient, feudal and tribal.

=== Ancient Armies

Ancient armies often displayed complex organizations that were not matched
until the Napoleonic era. The best-known examples are Greece and Rome.


The Classic Greek armies were organized as follows:

     A file was composed of eight soldiers in line behind the front

     A platoon (enomotia) was composed of three to four files side by
     side (24 to 32 soldiers), including a leader of Rank 3
     (enomotarch), plus a rear guard leader of Rank 2 (ouragos).

     A company (pentekostys) consisted of two to four enomotiai (50 to
     128 soldiers), including a leader of Rank 4 (pentekontere). This
     is the basic unit of the Greek phalanx, a rectangular formation of
     heavy infantry with spears

     A battalion (lochos) consisted of four to six pentekostyes (200 to
     768 soldiers) and a leader of Rank 5 (lochagos).

     A division (mora) consisted of two to four lochoi (400 to 1,540
     soldiers) and a leader of Rank 7 (polemarch).

The Spartans had six morai and Athens had ten, one for each tribe of


The organization of the legions of the Roman Empire (in the period 100 B.C.
to 300 A.D.) was as follows (see GURPS Imperial Rome for more details):

A century contained 80 to 100 legionaries, including a leader of Rank 4
(centurion). The centurions from the First Cohort outranked the rest (Rank
5). The Senior Centurion of the First Cohort, the Primus Pilum ("First
Javelin"), (Rank 6) was second-in-command of the legion in all but name. The
principales (Rank 1) and the cohort standard bearers, or signifiers (Rank 2)
were the lowest petty officers. The optiones, or "chosen" were the
centurion's immediate assistants (Rank Level 3); sometimes there was more
than one optio in a century.

A cohort consisted of 6 centuries (480 to 600 soldiers) and was led by a
tribune (Rank 5). The Tribune of the First Cohort (Rank 6) was the official

A legion had 10 cohorts (4,000 to 6,000 soldiers) plus a unit of about 120
Light Cavalry (LC) to protect the flanks and for use as scouts and
messengers, and was led by a legate (Rank 7) and the Prefect of the Camp
(Rank 6), second-in-command of all non-combat matters.

A large army would consist of several legions and auxiliary units.

Roman auxiliary cavalry was divided into units called alae, between 500 and
1,000 men strong. Each ala was divided into smaller units called turmae,
which had about 20-40 men trained to work in groups of 6-10 men each.

Alae were led by a tribune; the turmaes were commanded by decurions (Rank
3). There were 1-4 decurions on each turma; in theory, they commanded units
of 10 men.

Feudal Armies

Feudal armies are much more loosely organized. The main constituents are the
feudal levies. These march to battle under their local leader. Once with the
field army (which is simply all the troops under a single command for a
battle or campaign) they are formed into ad hoc units with similar equipment
and the senior man in each such unit is designated its commander. Such units
are usually no more than 100 strong; that is about the largest force that
one man can control by voice and hand signals. These units are normally
called companies and their commander is called a captain. Such appointments
are only for the campaign; they do not require the Military Rank advantage.
The captain appoints a petty officer for every ten soldiers; these also do
not require Military Rank.

In addition to feudal levies, some feudal armies had small, permanent units,
usually the rulers' elite guards. These would be organized along more modern

The higher appointments of a feudal army are also ad hoc. The force is
usually broken into three components: Van or Vanguard (the advance guard,
which marches first), Main and Rear. Each body is under a commander selected
by the king. The commander is usually a senior noble or veteran mercenary;
again the appointment is only for the campaign. Each commander selects a
number of aides, ranging from messengers to senior advisers.

Mercenary forces in a feudal setting can be of any size and organization.
Anyone who can attract a following can set himself up as a sell-sword. They
usually ape the composition of the armies around them. Commonly any leader
who can supply up to 100 men is called captain, while one who can supply
several companies calls himself a general.

Tribal Armies

Primitive societies fight by tribe, clan and band rather than in any
organized formation. The only title of command is chief, and may represent
anything from half a dozen rogues to thousands of warriors. Some tribal
armies include female warriors and, therefore, can field relatively larger

*** NOTE: In order to make life simple, all Perilous Lands armies should be
***       based on a unit of 100 men.

=== Troop Strength (TS)

The next step is determining the strength of the soldiers within the army.
The Troop Strength value of an individual in a unit depends on his type and
quality. Multiply this value by the number of men (or other creatures) in
the unit for the unit's total TS.

Troop Type

Each unit is composed of a single troop type. All persons in a unit are
similarly equipped. Troop types are differentiated by armor, weapons and

Usually armor and weapons are lumped together into classifications of
"Heavy," "Medium," and "Light." Heavy troops have rigid armor and heavy, or
"shock," weapons; medium troops usually wear flexible armor (e.g. chain
mail) and have somewhat less damaging weapons; light units have little or no
armor (leather or less) and have less damaging weapons. A final division is
whether the soldiers have formal training in weapons and other military
matters. Soldiers without training (and often with no armor and improvised
weapons), such as feudal peasant levies, are called "irregulars." Beware of
underestimating the strength of irregulars, since they can still be
battle-hardened elite warriors (see Troop Quality and Morale below).

Issues of troop mobility come down to whether or not the soldiers use
vehicles for transportation and in combat. Those who walk are called
"infantry" and those with some vehicle are usually called "cavalry," be it a
horse, a chariot, or a flying beast (air cavalry).

If a unit also uses ranged weapons, a bonus to the Troop Strength is added.
Those troops with specialty weapons, such as artillery, and members of
non-human races are put into separate units.

Some units treat a group of soldiers as one unit, usually the crew for a
large piece of equipment, such as artillery. The TS of these units includes
the crew. The crew has no separate TS, except when they get separated, such
as in a Rout. In this case, treat these soldiers as TS 2.

The following tables provide guidelines for the Troop Strength of various
troop types: (with codes)

[3]     Light Armor (AV 0-1): +1
[2]     Medium Armor (AV 2-3): +2
[1]     Heavy Armor (AV 4-5): +3
[+]     Magical Armor: +1/2 added AV (round down)

[C]     Light Weapons (None or WSB -1): +1
[B]     Medium Weapons (WSB 0 or +1): +2
[A]     Heavy Weapons (WSB +2 or more): +3
[$]     Fine or Very Fine weapons: +1
[+]     Magical weapons: +1/2 added SB (round up)

[#]     Light Horses (Riding I, II): +1
[##]    Medium Horses (Riding III, IV; War I, II): +2
[###]   Heavy Horses (War III, IV): +4
[%%%]    Flying mount (Pegasi?): +5
[-]     No stirrups: -1

Ranged Weapons
[>]     Sling, javelin: +1
[>>]    Ordinary bow: +2
[>>>]   Longbow, composite bow or crossbow: +3

Special Weapons
[O]    Light Chariots*: +5
[OO]    Medium Chariots*: +10
[OOO]    Heavy Chariots*: +15
[K]     Small Ballistae: +15
[S]     Small Siege Engines: +25
[SS]    Large Siege Engine: +50

[X]     Creature/Monster@: +(OCV+DCV)/4 + CDF + NAV - NWI/2 (round down)

Other Modifiers:

[~]     Irregulars: -1/3 TS (round down)

*Includes crew and horses -- add optional archer of same weight class.
@Minimum value -- additional physical abilities such as breathing flame
 or the like must be carefully considered.  If the creature is intelligent
 and uses weapons or armor, add the proper equipment modifiers.

The code allows one to compact the information on a unit and is entirely
optional.  It allows one to quickly determine quality and equipment at a glance.

EXAMP: A unit of Marentian Heavy Knights (Heavy Armor, Heavy Weapons, Heavy
        Horse) would have a base TS of 10 and a code of A1###.  If they were
        also equipped with spears, their base TS each would be 11 and
        their code A1###>.

NOTE: Because of the desire to keep things simpler, feel free to add
archers to groups in even increments, pro-rating the missile weapon
modifier.  Thus, a 100 man infantry with Med. Weapons and Med. armor (+4)
has 1/3 of it's force equipped with longbows (+3, x 1/3 = +1), so the
"average" man has TS +5 and the unit has a value of 500.

The Stirrup

There is some controversy over the value of stirrups for cavalry. The
traditional view is that stirrups significantly increased the effectiveness
of cavalry, while some military historians say this claim is overblown.

For these rules, cavalry troops without stirrups have a -1 TS penalty, as
shown in the Cavalry table above. They are limited in the weapon tactics
they can use and the missions they can perform. Cavalry charges using
couched lances cannot be performed without stirrups. Cavalry without
stirrups will generally be used for scouting, raiding, flank and missile
attacks, and charging broken or shaky formations of infantry. If battle
plans call for cavalry to charge well-formed infantry, especially pikemen,
the GM should penalize the Strategy roll appropriately.

Though Light Cavalry have the same Troop Strength as Light Infantry, there
is a Special Unit Superiority bonus (see below) for cavalry, so a completely
LC force gets a +3 Strategy bonus against a force composed entirely of
infantry, the equivalent of a 2 to 1 advantage.

TL Differences

When armies of differing TLs fight, a special adjustment is made to
compensate for advances in tactics, logistics, medicine and other fields,
plus the sheer shock value of advanced weaponry: the more advanced army's
gets a bonus to the Strategy roll equal to the difference in TL+2. So, a TL5
army attacking a TL3 army would add +4 to their Strategy roll. A small,
technically advanced force can still be overwhelmed by superior numbers,
better strategy, or unlucky accidents like anyone else. GMs who feel this
adjustment is too unbalancing can ignore it, reduce it or put an upper limit
on the effects to the Strategy contest contributed by TL.

*** NOTE: In P&P terms, most civilized lands are at TL3, barbarian cultures
***       at TL2 and wild cultures at TL1 or 0.

Increases in TL may also increase the effectiveness of soldiers in large
numbers. Therefore, the limit of 10 to 1 on bonuses to the Strategy roll for
relative TS is waived for the higher TL army when the difference in TL is
greater than 2 (see Relative Troop Strengths below).

=== Troop Quality and Morale

Troop quality is determined by the average experience of the men in the
unit. This directly determines the unit's base Morale (see table below).

If the campaign situation or adventure does not dictate the quality of a
body of troops, determine troop quality by rolling three dice on the chart

Use the same chart when determining the quality of a newly-raised unit (see
Raising Troops) or when recruiting replacements -- in this case, it gives
the average quality of the replacements you were able to hire.

Morale is used to determine the reactions of units due to losses and
overwhelming odds. More experienced soldiers are more likely to hold their
position in a bad situation than raw recruits.

Troop Quality Table (roll 2d10)

Die     Troop        Battles   Base         Troop        Base Pay &
Roll   Quality       Fought   Morale       Strength     Cost to Raise
  2*    Elite (E)     15+        +7       2 x base TS     +50%
 3-6*   Veteran (V)  10-14       +6     1.5 x base TS     +25%
 7-10   Seasoned (S)  6-9        +5     1.2 x base TS     +10%
11-14   Average (A)   4-5        +4           base TS     base
15-17   Green (G)     1-3        +2      .8 x base TS     base
18-20   Raw (R)(t)     0         +0      .5 x base TS     -20%

*Roll again if you were trying to raise a new unit, or to recruit more than
10 men.

(t) No battlefield experience. If troops of this quality are also Irregulars
(no military training), their morale is reduced by an additional -3.  In
addition, morale rolls fail on a roll of 5 on the dice in addition to 2-4.

Typical Skill Table

Troop Quality   CEL   Weapon EL
  Elite         10        7
  Veteran        8        5
  Seasoned       6        3
  Average        4        2
  Green          2        1
  Raw            0        0

Unit Commander and Morale

A unit commander's leadership can affect the morale of his soldiers.  Add
Leadership EL/3 (round down) to the morale of the force.  If the
unit commander does not have the Leadership skill subtract 2 from
the morale of the unit.

The commander with the greatest leadership is considered the leader of
the force, limited by levels -- military forces will not be lead by
irregulars, irregulars will not be lead by rabble.

When a unit gets a new commander (no matter how experienced), drop all
troops except Raw to the next lowest Quality.

Leadership:  Initial: 50   NEL: x10   Max: (W+Em)/10
Strategy:    Initial: 60   NEL: x12   Max: (I+Em)/10
Tactics:     Initial: 50   NEL: x10   Max: (I+Em+W)/15

Force Commander's Experience Table (roll 2d10)
Die Roll   Quality   Battles   Strategy   Leadership
    2       Elite      15+      EL6+1d6    EL6+1d6
   3-6      Veteran   10-14     EL4+1d6    EL4+1d6
   7-11     Seasoned   6-9      EL2+1d3    EL2+1d3
  12-16     Average    4-5        EL2        EL2
  17-19     Green      1-3        EL1        EL1
    20      Raw         0         EL0        EL0

Unit Morale and Troop Strength

Units that are demoralized (i.e., below their base Morale) often fight less
effectively than normal. At the GM's option, the Troop Strength of
demoralized units can be reduced or units whose Morale is above their base
Morale may also have their TS increased. A unit's Troop Strength can be
reduced (or increased) by 10% for each point their current Morale level is
below (or above) their base Morale.

Example: Due to poor leadership and some serious defeats, a Veteran Heavy
Infantry platoon (30 soldiers with total TS of 225 and base Morale of +6)
has an effective Morale of +4, the same as Average quality troops. This
unit's TS could be treated as 180 until they can regain their base Morale

Changing Troop Quality

In a continuing campaign, units will lose troops and replace them --
sometimes with experienced men, sometimes with raw recruits. Keep track of
the number of battles (not just days of battle) a unit fights, counting
anything over 20 as 20. When a unit adds new men for any reason, the new
Troop Quality is the new average experience of the men. GMs may not want to
count battles where there was little resistance, such as engagements with
odds of greater than 10 to 1.

Example: Titus of Megalos commands a veteran unit, with average experience
of 10 engagements. It has 87 men. Titus recruits 11 more men, of "green"
quality. Average experience is computed as follows: 87 x 10 for the old
troops. 11 x 1 (use the low end of the experience scale) for the new men.
870 plus 11 is 881. Divide that by 98 men, for an average experience of just
under 9. Round down to 8. The company is now considered to have an average
experience of 8 engagements, making it merely "seasoned." Two more fights
will bring it back to "veteran" status.

Six months of military training will change Untrained troops into Raw
quality. A year of training will turn Raw troops into Green. No further
increases in quality can be made without actual battle experience.

=== Building and Feeding an Army

An army travels on its stomach, but it won't go very far if you don't pay
it, either. The following sections gives costs for raising, feeding and
paying troops.

Raising Troops

The cost to raise a body of troops is determined by troop type. The general
method of determining this is to total the cost to purchase equipment and
pay a hiring bonus. The hiring bonus is usually equal to a month's pay, or
about 10% of the equipment cost.

GMs may modify costs for special circumstances, such as unusually good or
bad availability of men, horses and equipment.

For ranged weapons, add the equipment cost and the difference in hiring
bonus to the total, per man. The hiring bonus is usually considerably higher
for trained missile troops because of their lower availability.

Normally, troops of Elite and Veteran quality cannot be "raised" -- there
are not that many trained men currently unemployed, unless the GM decides
that a mercenary unit is available.

The GM decides what sort of troops are available. PC leaders will usually
want to raise the best troop they can, given their budget. If the GM needs
to determine troop quality randomly, use the table above under Troop Quality
and Morale.

NOTE: The following section is unconverted since I do not have book 1.
If anyone has a good idea how much it losts to live at Station 1, let
me know.

Paying and Maintaining Troops

The cost to feed and maintain an infantryman is equal to the cost of living
for station 1; the cost to feed riding animals is generally the Station
1 cost of living times their AHP/10, round up. Particularly large animals
(e.g., elephants) or those with expensive feeding needs (e.g., carnivores)
will cost more; how much more is up to the GM. Troops must be fed, or a unit
will revolt, dissolve or desert.

Troops also expect monthly pay; unpaid troops can be dangerous to their
leaders or employers. Morale drops by 1 after the first missed payday, 2
after each succeeding missed payday. Make a Morale roll on each missed
payday, after reducing morale. A failed roll gives bad results, as per the
GM's whim. Every second payday made increases morale by 1, but only to the
extent of eliminating the negative modifiers for previously missed paydays.
Limit the Morale of Elite and Veteran units to 14 for determining the
results of no pay.

Generally speaking, human troops expect to be paid about 10% of the
cost-to-raise, each month, with the bonuses given in the Determining Troop
Quality table for experience. An additional 50% bonus will increase morale
by 1 for the next month; a 100% or more bonus will increase morale by 2 for
the next month. Income from looting counts as pay. Troops may forego some
pay, if the chances of substantial looting in the near future are high. If
those chances are not fulfilled, though, the backlash from the troops could
be much worse. In some eras, troops may be paid in lands, citizenship and
other inducements.

Conscripts fighting against their will do not need to be paid, though some
conscripted armies still do pay their soldiers (e.g. the U.S. Armed Forces
during the Draft). Additional paid security forces will often be needed to
keep unpaid conscripts from deserting. These forces should be better
equipped than the conscripted forces to maintain order (e.g. the Republican
Guard of Iraq during the Gulf War). Conscripted troops generally have lower
morale than volunteers; -1 for paid conscripts, and -2 or lower for unpaid

The Battle

This section describes the method for determining the outcome of the battle
between the armies constructed in the previous section.

Special Abilities

In some settings, special abilities (magic, psionics and superpowers) can be
used in warfare. Before rolling for catastrophes, resolve the effects of
special abilities on the battle. For more details, see Exceptional Powers in


When the battle begins, the GM rolls 2d10 on the following table, once
for each side, to see if something goes disastrously wrong.

Catastrophe Roll

2-7 -- No catastrophe.

8-10 -- Enemy manages some sort of surprise: -1 to Strategy roll.

11 -- Enemy receives unexpected reinforcements or is just lucky. Increase
his Troop Strength by 10%. (The GM may be creative about what occurred.)

12 -- The battle plans have been partially revealed to the enemy by turncoats,
spies, magic, etc.: -2 to Strategy roll.

13 -- Dissension among allies or top leaders weakens morale. -2 to Strategy
roll, -1 to Morale of all units.

14 -- Enemy reveals a terrifying atrocity: -1 to Morale of all units if
Morale roll is failed; +1 to Morale, in anger, if a 12+ Morale roll is made.

15 -- Ally or unit commander defects to enemy, revealing plans and taking
his troops with him. Recalculate forces' Troop Strengths; -2 to Strategy

16 -- Miscommunication reduces any special force advantage by 1/2 (round

17 -- An important unit leader (rolled randomly among leaders commanding at
least 20% of that side's Troop Strength) is wounded early in battle (2d of
damage): -1 to Morale of all units, -2 to Morale of his unit.

18 -- Commander wounded early in battle (2d of damage): -2 to Strategy roll,
-3 to Morale of all units.

19 -- Important unit leader (rolled randomly as above) killed (or if a PC,
wounded and unconscious) early in battle: -2 to Morale of all units, -3 to
Morale of his unit. (If a PC, he makes no further Survival or Glory rolls.)

20 -- Commander killed early in battle (or if a PC wounded and unconscious).
Base Strategy roll cut in half (round up). -5 to Morale of all units.

The Catastrophe table may be altered depending on the culture involved. For
example, defections are more common than atrocities in Katai, so
their positions in the above table could be switched.

Consequences to Player Characters

The more daring and brave a warrior is, the more likely he is to get hurt!
Each PC in a battle must make a Battle skill roll. Battle skill cannot be
studied or taken as a beginning skill. It is equal to the average of the
PC's CEL and the EL of his main weapon skill.
If he uses both a melee and a missile weapon, base Battle skill on
the melee weapon. Since the battlefield is a very dangerous place, no matter
how careful or skilled a soldier is, Battle skill rolls are limited to +7.
If the PC is rolling for survival at a penalty, due to Risk or being on the
losing side, these modifiers are first applied to Battle skill before
imposing the limit of +7. Therefore, PCs with Battle skill greater than +7
can still receive some benefit. Note Battle skill on the PC's
record sheet in pencil, since it will change if he goes into battle with
different weapons or if his CEL or Combat skills are improved.


A PC can choose to take more or less Risk in a battle, announcing his choice
before his Survival roll. He may choose any number from -7 to +7 as a
modifier, -7 being very risky and +7 being very cautious. This Risk modifier
is applied to the Survival roll. However, the opposite modifier applies to
his Glory roll. No guts, no glory! If Survival is -4, then Glory is +4.
Cowardly PCs and those PCs in units held in reserve or who otherwise were
not exposed to the full impact of the battle, should not pick a Risk factor
below -1. Overconfident PCs should not pick a Risk factor above +1. Berserk
PCs should not pick a Risk above 0.

Survival Roll

If the Survival roll results in damage, take the injury directly off HT --
subtract Toughness. Determine hit location(s) randomly. If a PC unit or army
leader takes enough injury to fall unconscious, his unit's final Strategy
roll is affected as per Catastrophes (see above). A PC can use Luck to
re-roll the Survival roll.

Roll   Result
 18+   Unhurt
13-17  1d3 damage
 12    2d3 damage
10-11  2d6-AV damage
 8-9   4d6-AV damage*
 6-7   8d6-AV damage**
  5-   12d6-AV damage***

*This result applies if you roll a natural 4 on the 2d10
**This result applies if you roll a natural 3 on the 2d10
***This result applies if you roll a natural 2 on the 2d10

Glory Roll

A warrior who gains glory will have improved Reputation, and the associated
reaction bonus, for the specified period. The indicated modifiers to the
Strategy roll are used only if the PC is a unit leader. This Strategy bonus
is 1 point higher (and any penalty is 1 point worse) if the PC is force
commander. Roll for Glory even if the character dies -- a glorious death can
inspire the troops.

Battle Skill Roll and Result

Roll   Result
 24+   Covered in glory; +2 to reputation for 1d6 months, +1
       permanently; Roll for promotion; +2 to Strategy roll.@
19-23  Fought with great courage and heroism; +1 to reputation
       for 1d6-2 months (1 month minimum); roll for promotion;
       +1 to Strategy Roll
16-18  Fought heroicly: roll for promotion; +1 to Strategy.
12-15  Fought competently.
 8-11  Fought Adequately.
 4-7   Fought Poorly: -1 to Reputation for 1d6-2 month (1 month
       minimum); -1 to Strategy roll.  Superior officer notices
       your ineptness or caution; make an influence roll to see how he
       will treat you after the battle. A failed result indicates
       a possible demotion in rank.*
  3-   Fought very badly; -2 reputation for 1d6 months; -3 to
       Strategy roll.  Results from superior officer as above. In addition, if
you survive the battle,
       someone your equal in rank will publicly name you a coward and, in
       some cultures, will try to provoke a duel. Demotion.**

@ This result applies if your roll a natural 19 or 20.
* This result applies if you roll a natural 3 or 4.
** This result applies if you roll a natural 2.

Some results may be different depending on the culture involved. For
example, a loss of Reputation in Katai may cause a character to
contemplate suicide.


Check the reaction of the character's superior officer after the battle,
based on the character's improved Reputation (x10) plus his influence chance.
With a successful roll under 1/3rd the needed number (in
some cultures), the character may be offered a battlefield
promotion of one Rank. If the reaction is under 1/10th, the PC may
also be offered a transfer to an elite unit. In any period or culture, a
favorable reaction  will dispose the superior to do the
heroic warrior some favor; this may well consist of an especially dangerous
and honorable position in the next battle.

Strategy Modifiers

The GM now takes into account the circumstances of the battle, which may
raise or lower the effective Strategy skill of each side's commander. All
these modifiers are cumulative.

Relative Troop Strengths

Compare the troop strengths of the opposing forces. Divide the greater TS by
the lesser one for the "odds factor." For example, a TS of 100 vs. a TS of
50 is an odds factor of 2. The greater the odds factor, the greater the
bonus to Strategy skill of the stronger force's commander.

Odds Factor: Strategy skill bonus

1.2 or less:       No bonus
1.2+ to 1.4:         +1
1.4+ to 1.7:         +2
1.7+ to 2:           +3
2+ to 3:             +4
3+ to 5:             +5
5+ to 7:             +6
7+ to 10:            +7
greater than 10:     +8

When a force is more than 2 TLs higher than the opposing force, the 10 to 1
odds limit is waived for the higher TL army. Each additional 10 to 1 odds is
equal to another +1 Strategy. For instance, when a TL 6 force is fighting a
TL 3 feudal army, 30 to 1 odds would yield a +10 on the Strategy roll.

Defensive Position

If one side is clearly the defender, it gets Strategy modifiers based on its
position. When appropriate, these modifiers are cumulative.

     Attacker attacks downhill: -3 or worse
     Attacker approaches under cover: -1
     Attacker must come up a gradual incline: +1
     Attacker must come up a steep incline: +2
     Attacker must come up a steep incline on bad ground: +3
     *Attacker must force a narrow passage (defile, pass, ford, or
     bridge): +2 to +8, depending on how narrow it is.
     *Defender is protected by palisade, breastwork, trenches, dry moat
     or unforded/unbridged river: +3
     *Defender occupies an unwalled town: +2
     *Defender occupies a walled town: +5
     *Defender occupies a manor, stronghold, unwalled city or fort: +4
     *Defender occupies a walled city: +7
     *Defender occupies a castle: +9

These defensive factors can be combined. For instance, a castle on top of a
steep hill would count as +11.

* Reduce the value of any modifier with an asterisk (*) by 2 if the attacker
has seige weapons or mining crews. Battles involving the
starred modifiers use a different set of combat tables (see Resolving the
Contest of Strategy).

Special Unit Superiority

A force will receive a Strategy bonus if it has at least a 2 to 1
superiority in the numbers of certain troop types, regardless of troop
quality. In a siege action all cavalry are counted as infantry. If the
opponent has no troops of the equivalent type, treat as 5 to 1 or better.
There are four types of superiority: artillery
(only in siege situations); cavalry (only in non-siege situations);
air (any situtation) and ranged weapons.
Other types of units, such as undead, can be
considered special units at the GM's option.

Each type of superiority counts separately: if you have a force of mounted
archers and the foe has no cavalry or missiles, you have 5 to 1 superiority
in both missile weapons and cavalry. Ratios for determining superiority are
rounded down.

Ratio Strategy skill bonus

     2 to 1: +1
     3 to 1: +2
     5 to 1 or better: +3

Neutralizing Special Units

Some types of units neutralize the superiority of the special units
described above. For instance, pikemen can neutralize a cavalry charge.
When figuring special unit superiority, count these neutralizing units as
the same type as the special unit for the side with less of the special
unit. Thus, pikemen cannot give you cavalry superiority, but they can
neutralize the other force's superiority.

Special Circumstances

Add Strategy bonuses or subtract Strategy penalties for any of the following
situations. All these circumstances are determined by the GM or the group's
roleplaying; for instance, a unit is unsupplied if the GM says it is.

     Taken totally by surprise: -6
     Partial surprise -- less than an hour's warning: -2
     Force-marched into battle: -3
     No supplies: -3
     Short supplies in a besieged city or castle: -2
     Supplied by forage only - 1
     On home grounds +2 (not cumulative with Defensive bonus for
     village, temple, city, manor or other fortification)

GMs may give additional bonuses or penalties from -6 to +6 for other factors
as they see fit: e.g., a heavy fog when trying to launch a closely
coordinated attack might be worth -3.

Battle Plans

The GM should sketch a map of the battlefield (or perhaps of several,
optional battlefields) for the players based on their armies knowledge of
the area, especially if the PCs are unit or force leaders. The GM should
then ask the players to give him a battle plan for their side (for both
sides, if there are PCs on both sides or if there is an Adversary Player for
the non-PC side). If the GM thinks a plan is especially good or bad, it
deserves a Strategy roll bonus or penalty of from +3 to -3.

If the GM is playing the part of the adversary, he should occasionally
spring a tactical surprise on the players. Describe what happens
realistically. If they handle it well, they get a Strategy roll bonus; if
they react poorly, they suffer a penalty.

Special Forces

If either side has the services of assassins, commandos, scouts or spies,
their proper use can be an important part of the battle plan. Special forces
like these may be sent on a variety of missions. The success of each mission
depends on the number of personnel assigned and (in general) on the Stealth
(or in some cases Tactics) skill of their leader. Special forces missions
can be played out as whole adventures (see GURPS Special Ops), or abstracted
into the general battle plan.

Assassination of the enemy leader will be a Catastrophe for the foe, if it
works. But it's risky, and if it fails, the enemy's morale will be improved,
especially if your spies are publicly executed before the battle!

Scouting the enemy forces is much safer and easier, and will usually give a
+ 1 or, if many commandos are used, a +2 on Strategy.

Security assignments can be given, to protect the lord and generals from
opposing assassins, or to ambush and kill enemy scouts.

Other creative uses of spies should be encouraged and rewarded by the GM. If
assassins are paid well and treated with respect, they will undertake almost


A careful commander might consult diviners before a battle. The
effectiveness of divination in general is known only to the GM . . . and
even in a campaign where magic is real, an individual diviner may be a fake.
A general may have many diviners, but he must pick just one to believe. A
genuine diviner who makes his skill roll gives +1 to his lord's Strategy
roll, or +2 on a critical success. If the diviner is a fake, average his own
Strategy roll with the commander's, unless the commander either fully
accepts (use just the diviner's Strategy) or discounts the diviner's advice
(use the commander's Strategy). The details of these modifiers, of course,
must remain secret from the players.

Resolving the Contest of Strategy

After determining the opposing commanders' effective Strategy, a Quick
Contest of Strategy is rolled to determine how well the troops are handled.
(For battles involving a total of less than 200 men, Tactics skill may be
used instead.)

The winner of the Quick Contest of Strategy is the winner of the battle. The
difference in the rolls the commanders make
will determine how decisive the victory is. Whether defeated troops withdraw
in good order or rout depends on their Morale roll (see below). Refer to the
appropriate table below to find the outcome. Use Tables B or C if any of the
starred Defensive Position modifiers applied.

Example: One leader makes a roll of 14, the other a 12. The difference is
2; the battle was inconclusive. If one leader makes a 14 and the
other a 6, the difference is 8 -- a much more one-sided battle.

A. Open-Field Battle
Won by 0-4: Inconclusive battle. Each unit on both sides should make a
    12+ morale roll.  Those who succeed hold position. Those who fail by
    only 1-5 withdraw in good order.  Those who fail by 6 or more rout.
Won by 5-9: Marginal victory. Each unit of the loser withdraws in good
    order if it can make a 12+ morale roll; otherwise it routs.
Won by 10-14: Definite victory. As above, but morale roll task is 15+.
Won by 15-19: Great victory. As above, but morale roll task is 18+.
Won by 20+: Overwealming victory: the loser routs.

B. Defender Wins
Won by 0-4: Inconclusive Battle. The attacker is thrown back but holds
    his former position.  He may attack again on the next day, at -2
Won by 5-9: Marginal victory. The attacker holds position if more than
    half its troops can make a 12+ morale roll; otherwise the whole
    force withdraws in good order.
Won by 10-14: Definite victory. As above, but morale roll task is 15+.
Won by 15-19: Great victory. Each attacking unit withdraws in good order
    if it can make a 12+ morale roll; otherwise it routs.
Won by 20+: Overwelming victory. As above, but morale roll task is 15+.

C. Attacker Wins
Won by 1-4: Inconclusive battle. The attacker technically won, but the
    defender will suffer no morale penalty on the nex day of battle.
Won by 5-9: Marginal victory. Both sides hold position.  The defender
    will be at -2 morale on the next day of battle.
Won by 10-14: Definite victory. The defender holds position if more than
    half its troops can make a 12+ morale roll; otherwise the whole
    force withdraws*.
Won by 15-19: Great Victory. The attacker captures the position.  Each
    individual unit of the defender withdraws* in good order if it can
    make a 12+ morale roll; otherwise tha unit routs or, if there is no
    escape, surrenders.
Won by 20+: Overwelming victory. The attacker captures the position and
    takes the enemy commander alive.  Each individual unit of the
    defender withdraws* in good order if it can make a 15+ morale roll;
    otherwise that unit routs or, if there is no escape, surrenders.

*If defenders get a "withdraw" result and have nowhere to go, make a
second morale roll for each such unit at +3 over the previous roll.  A
success means the unit holds position and another battle is likely.
(these defenders probably have their backs to the wall or have
retreated to an inner stronghold.)  A failure means the unit surrenders.
If surrender is not an option (no prisoners), the units will hold
position and another battle is required.

Some outcomes on these tables may be modified by culture. For instance,
losing Katai commanders in Table C who cannot withdraw will
attempt suicide.


In an actual siege involving a defender within a walled city or castle, the
above rules and Tables B and C only apply when the attacker storms the
fortifications. The overall siege is a long, drawn-out affair, taking months
or even years to complete. Many other tactics may be employed instead of an
all-out assault, which tends to be very bloody. Cutting off supplies and
water to the area and waiting for starvation, bribing someone to open the
gate, catapulting diseased animal carcasses and firebrands, and infiltrating
with spies are all alternate methods of taking a fortification.


Each unit starts with a Base Morale, determined by its Troop Quality.
Campaign events can affect morale before the battle. Catastrophes affect
morale for that battle only. Loss of established leaders affects morale
until the force wins a clear victory; as long as the force is defeated, has
inconclusive battles or marginal victories, the morale will stay low.

Example: Titus of Megalos has a veteran unit -- base morale 15. Loot was
good last month, so they entered the battle with a +1 morale, for a 16. In
the first hour of battle, Titus was wounded (-1 morale). So effective morale
is back to 15. After the battle, morale returns to 16.

Morale is used to determine whether a defeated unit withdraws in good order,
or routs. The GM may also require a morale roll whenever a unit is asked to
do something dangerous or unreasonable (e.g., fight at unreasonable odds, go
without food, water or pay, scale a castle wall despite the fact that the
defenders are dumping sewage over the walls, etc.).

Morale Modifiers

In a war against a hereditary foe, Morale is always +1.

Units defending home territory always have +2 morale.

Atrocities always require a morale roll. On a failed roll, morale drops by
1. On a successful roll, morale rises by 1 instead, in anger.

Morale before a battle is +1 if the unit has defeated the same foe this
year. It is -2 if the unit has been defeated by the same foe this year.

A force that knows its position was penetrated by spies will have -1 morale,
or -2 (at least) if important people were killed. It will have +2 if enemy
spies were caught and slain. Likewise, a force will have +1 morale if it
knows its spies have succeeded in scouting the foe, and -1 if it knows its
spies were killed.

Bonus payments can increase morale (see Paying and Maintaining Troops).


Units, or even the entire force, may rout, fleeing in panic, on a very bad
combat result (see Resolving the Contest of Strategy) and/or a failed Morale
roll. If a unit routs, its casualties are increased. Whether a routed unit
will ever reform as a unit is up to the GM. The survivors may be able to
reassemble under a number of circumstances: the battle was in friendly
territory, the unit was largely cavalry, there were plenty of places to
hide, the leader is charismatic, etc. PCs whose units are routed (or totally
crushed) must make their second Survival roll at -2 (see Second Survival


After the contest of strategy, casualties for each force are determined.
This does NOT affect the PCs; their fates are determined by their survival
rolls.  Even if a PC's unit is entirely wiped out, a PC who makes his
survival rolls gets away somehow.

Each unit makes a casualty roll, rolling 2d10 plus the strategy skill of
its leader, minus 2d10 plus the strategy skill of the enemy force
commander. If the unit was a defender proteced by his position
(modifiers with a * under defensive position) they may add that to their
total.  If the unit was on the winning side, add 1/2 the combat difference
(round down) to the roll.  If on the losing side, subtract 1/2 the

A unit's armor type (heavy, medium, light) moves them DOWNWARD on the casualty table.
   Heavy Cavalry, Heavy Footman: Adjust result down by 4 lines.
   Medium Cavalry, medium footman: Adjust result down by 2 lines.
   Light Cavalry, light fotman, pikemen: adjust level down by 1 line.
   Town rabble: no modifier.

If a unit routs, roll 1d6 and move up that number of lines.
If any combat risk was applied, move up that many lines on the table.

If the GM thinks that the battle was particularly intense, the caualty
results fdor all units for both sides may be moved up one or more lines.

Round all losses up. Half the casualties (round down) are killed or
permanently maimed.  The ther half recover at 5% of the original unit
per day in camp, or 2% per day on march.  If magic healing is available,
add 1d% to the recovery rate.  One healer is required for every 10
injured soldires to get this bonus.

Lost seige weapons become property of the victor; after an inconclusive
battle, each side retains half its lost artillary and the others are
considered destroyed.

Casualty Table
Difference   Casualties
-19 or less  (12d6+60)%
-17,-18      (11d6+55)%
-15,-16      (10d6+50)%
-13,-14      (9d6+45)%
-11,-12      (8d6+40)%
-9,-10       (7d6+35)%
-7,-8        (6d6+30)%
-5,-6        (5d6+25)%
-3,-4        (4d6+20)%
-1,-2        (4d6+15)%
  0          (4d6+10)%
1,2          (4d6+5)%
3,4          (4d6)%
5,6          (3d6)%
7,8          (2d6+2)%
9,10         (2d6)%
11,12        (1d6+2)%
13,14        (1d6)%
15,16        (1d3)%
17,18        (1d2)%
19 or more   0.5%, rounded down

Second Survival Roll

Any PCs on the losing side of a battle must make a second Survival roll,
using the same Risk modifier as for the first roll. Adjust this roll down by
-1 for every 3 full points of difference in the Contest of Strategy. If
defending, adjust up by any bonus for starred Defensive Position modifiers.
If the PC's unit was routed (see Rout), the second Survival roll is made at
-2. Any adventuring after that will be directed, at least for a time, toward
getting home alive or regrouping with other lost battle comrades.

Roleplaying Battle Scenes

The system presented here will resolve large combats. It is up to the GM to
make these interesting for the players -- and vice versa. The GM should
always sketch a map of the battlefield (or perhaps of several optional
battlefields) to help the PCs visualize the strategy, especially if they are
unit or force leaders.

Players whose characters are in leadership positions may attempt to give
orders to their troops once the battle has started and any enemy surprises
have appeared. PCs who are mere troopers can control only their own fates --
and then, only to a limited extent -- by deciding how much bravery (or
cowardice) they will show. But they should describe their actions anyway:
not just "I'm going for a -3 on Survival to get a +3 on Glory" but "I'm
shouting insults and charging the enemy standard-bearer."

Similarly, the GM should present all morale effects with maximum drama --
during preparations for the battle, at the beginning of battle and when the
troops begin to rout.

Remember: roleplaying should be fun. Players should be heroic; after all,
each character thinks of himself as the hero of his own story. GMs should
remember that they are storytellers; tell the tale well, and reward heroism.

After the Battle

When the battle is finished, there will be opportunities for looting,
ransoming prisoners, and regrouping forces.


Many military units -- not just mercenaries -- depend largely on loot to
make life worthwhile. The loot available in even a burned-out and
picked-over city can be immense and is up to the GM to settle.

But the loot from a battlefield is also very valuable. The force that holds
the field after a fray will be able to recover the arms and armor of all its
own casualties, and most, if not all, of the other side's dead. If the foe
routed, both its dead and wounded -- all its casualties -- will be left for

Very roughly speaking, the average value of the gear stripped from a killed
or captured trooper would equal 1/3 of the cost to "raise" that trooper (see
Raising Troops). It would sell for less -- possibly only 20% of that cost,
in cash -- but to an army, most or all of the salvage will be useful. Halve
these numbers again for cavalry; live horses are expensive, dead ones are
rations at best.

Some cultures (e.g., Katai) did not make a practice of looting the
battlefield for many reasons. Other cultures may take trophies, such as
heads, from their dead enemies. Battlefields were often looted by the
locality's poor (bandits or peasants) before the relatives of the dead could
make arrangements for burial. Sometimes such scavengers also found soldiers
who had been left for dead by their comrades and enemies. In such a case,
check the scavenger's reaction roll; he might kill the soldier, ignore him
or nurse him back to health.

PCs who have been wounded, or even those who thought themselves dead, may
wake up in a peasant's cottage, in the enemy camp, in prison, or as slaves.

Ransom of Prisoners

Especially in aristocratic societies, it can be highly profitable to take a
noble foe as a prisoner rather than slay him outright. Many such lords would
carry a ransom of hundreds, if not thousands, of coin.

Some cultures did not hold captured enemies for ransom. They may be either
executed, held as hostages for their relatives' good behavior or held for
some other fate.

Multiple Combatants

Most battles are fought between two sides, though many individual allies may
be on each side. If more than two forces are fighting independently from
each other, a multi-party Contest of Strategy can be used with the commander
who wins by the greatest margin holding the field, while the others take the
effects from the tables based on their difference from the winner. In this
case, the Relative Troop Strength Strategy bonus is figured against the
average of the other opponents' TS.

Exceptional Powers in Battle

Combat in many settings can be affected by exceptional abilities, like
magic and powers. These powers can be used directly, such as
hurling fireballs at enemy troops, or more subtly, such as disabling enemy
leaders, scouting enemy forces, or bringing a single morale-shaking disaster
to the enemy. Supers with powerful offensive and defensive capabilities
should fight as soldiers, using the Troop Strength section to calculate TS.
Those supers with less battle-oriented skills, along with mages and psis,
should use this section to determine their effect on the battle.

Determining Exceptional Power Available

To determine the exceptional power available to the troops, a Exceptional
Strength (ES) must be calculated for each practitioner.

Computing Exceptional Strength

Compute the Exceptional Strength (ES) for each force by computing the total
of MEL and all ELs (plus 1 per spell known) of each practitioner.
If the total is less than 15,
the practitioner is not strong enough to affect a mass combat. If the total
is 16 or more, use the following table.

     16 points = 1/2 Exceptional Strength point
     24 points = 1 Exceptional Strength point
     32 points = 2 Exceptional Strength points
     40 points = 3 Exceptional Strength points
     48 points = 5 Exceptional Strength points
     56 points = 8 Exceptional Strength points
     64 points = 12 Exceptional Strength points
     72 points = 16 Exceptional Strength points
     80 points = 20 Exceptional Strength points
     Add 1 Exceptional Strength point for each additional 2 points.

Exceptional Strength Modifiers

     Mage possesses enchanted item: +1 to +5 (GM's discretion)

Using Exceptional Powers on the Battlefield

Each player secretly and simultaneously marks the number of points expended
on each special effect detailed below (including defense -- see Defending
Against Hostile Powers below), after the Troop Strength of both forces have
been calculated, but before they are revealed or any die rolls are made.

To use a specific effect, a practitioner must have some power or spell that
could produce the desired effect. If all the mages available have no Healing
spells, they can not perform battlefield Healing effects. The GM can
determine which effects are possible for each side.


Special powers can attempt to force a Catastrophe (see above) on its
opposition by increasing the opponent's Catastrophe roll. Each 2 points
expended, will give the foe a +1 modifier on its Catastrophe roll.

Affecting Morale

Exceptional powers can be used to improve the morale of friendly units, or
to reduce the morale of enemy units. In either case, one point provides a +1
(or -1) morale modifier for 100 TS of troops. Thus, for example, a unit of
20 Green Heavy Infantry (Total TS 100; Morale roll of 11+) can have its
morale modified by +2, giving them the morale of Average troops (13+), or
-2, lowering their morale to that of Raw troops (9+), for an expenditure of
2 points.


Exceptional powers can be used to improve the survival chances of injured
troops. One Exceptional Strength point can adjust the result on the Casualty
Table down by one line for 100 TS of troops. This option counters and is
countered by "Striking against the Foe" below.


Exceptional powers can be used to observe enemy forces, and to thereby
reduce the effectiveness of an enemy's strategy. If the force with the
exceptional individual is being run by the player, successful use of
scouting powers will give him some advance warning of the preparations used
by the enemy, and allow him to revise his battle plan (GM's discretion as to
how much).

If the force is being run by an NPC, abstract this information to a +1
Strategy modifier, costing 3 Exceptional Strength points. More energy can be
expended if desired (particularly if the enemy has special defenses), but no
more than a +1 modifier can be gained in any case.

Confounding the Enemy

Special powers can also be used to disrupt the enemy's battle plan. If the
force leader knows the enemy battle plan (through diviners, scouting magic
or more mundane means), or if he just wants to guess, he can use the
exceptional abilities to create conditions adverse to the enemy's plan. Such
efforts include flooding a river to be forded, bringing up a dense fog, or
even causing an earthquake in a narrow defile.

To do this, the player of the force should describe the effect, and how it
would be produced (what spell or psionic skill would be used, etc.). The GM
should analyze the effectiveness of the strategy and assign an appropriate
Excep-tional Strength cost and Strategy roll modifier.

Striking Against the Foe

Rather than providing unique capabilities, many of these powers can simply
be hurled against the foe. These special powers can be powerful weapons, and
have made the difference between defeat and victory in more than one battle
of myth or science fiction. Each Exceptional Strength point can adjust the
result on the Casualty Table up by one line for 100 TS of troops.

Defending Against Hostile Powers

Exceptional Strength points can be allocated to defend against hostile

These points are not allocated to other specific effects; rather, they are
used to block other effects after the allocations are revealed.

Each point of power allocated to defense blocks 1 point of the opponent's
offensive power. Exceptional powers must be blocked in units. It is not
possible, for example, to block only 1 enemy ES point allocated to
Catastrophe modifiers; these must be blocked in units of 2.

Should more points be allocated to defense than the other side allocated to
offensive capability, all of the opponent's power is blocked, but the
remainder of the defensive points are wasted.

This ends the "mechanical" portion of mass combat. Dealing with the outcome
in terms of the campaign is left to the GM and the players. Below is a
completely worked out battle and two examples of these rules: the armies of
Yrth and World War I.

Troop Costs

*** NOTE: Unconverted, but retained so that once the lowest level is
*** determined we can use ratios to find the rest.

The cost to raise troops is as follows, per man:

     Heavy Cavalry: $14,000
     Medium Cavalry: $9,000
     Light Cavalry: $5,000
     Irregular Cavalry: $3,000
     Heavy Infantry: $9,000
     Medium Infantry: $5,000
     Pikemen: $2,000
     Light Infantry: $1,500
     Irregular Infantry: $200
     Small Siege Engines: $15,000 average -- varies widely, includes
     Large Siege Engines: $25,000 average -- varies widely, includes

Add $500 per man if the troops are slingers, $1,000 for ordinary archers,
$1,500 for archers with composite bows, longbows or crossbows.

The cost to maintain a soldier in the field is $200; to maintain a knight
and horse costs $800. Monthly pay is expected to be equal to 10% of the cost
to raise listed above, regardless of experience.

Non-Human Races

Centaurs: Treat as Irregular Cavalry (IC) of Average or better quality.
Centaurs are tribally organized. Racial TS modifier is +2.

Dwarves: Always Medium or Heavy Infantry (MI and HI) of Seasoned or better
quality. Dwarves are also supreme miners, and Dwarvish MN troops have a TS
of 10 in a siege, and TS of Medium or Heavy Infantry in open battle. Use
either modern or Classic Greek organization. If the Dwarvish mountains are
attacked, all adult dwarves, male and female, would fight, fielding a
powerful force. Racial TS modifier is +1.

Elves: Light Infantry or Cavalry composite or long bowmen (LI or LC),
usually of Seasoned or better quality. In their home territory, elves are
the consummate guerrilla warriors. Feudal organization is used by the elves.
Because of their racial Combat Reflexes, Elves cannot be Irregulars. Racial
TS modifier is +0.

Giants: Usually Medium Infantry (MI) of Average or better quality. They can
throw rocks like a small siege engine and they can thus be counted as such.
Giants are tribally organized. Racial TS modifier is +11.

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